HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Alternative Periodic Tables
Theodor Benfey's periodic table (1964)Part of a series on thePeriodic table Periodic table
Periodic table
forms18-columnlarge cells32-column (large cells)Alternative formsChemical Galaxy Janet's left stepBeyond period 7Frickelarge cellsPyykkö Periodic table
[...More...]

"Alternative Periodic Tables" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Aufbau Principle
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible. Aufbau is a German noun that means construction or "building-up". The aufbau principle is sometimes called the building-up principle or the aufbau rule. Since the name originates from a common noun, it should not be capitalised in English. The details of this "building-up" tendency are described mathematically by atomic orbital functions. Electron
Electron
behavior is elaborated by other principles of atomic physics, such as Hund's rule and the Pauli exclusion principle
[...More...]

"Aufbau Principle" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Atomic Orbital
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.[1] This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term atomic orbital may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital.[2] Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a unique set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ℓ, and m, which respectively correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component (the magnetic quantum number). Each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum number s
[...More...]

"Atomic Orbital" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Post-transition Metal
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right. Depending on where these adjacent groups are judged to begin and end, there are at least five competing proposals for which elements to include: the three most common contain six, ten and thirteen elements, respectively (see image). All proposals include gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth. Physically, post-transition metals are soft (or brittle), have poor mechanical strength, and have melting points lower than those of the transition metals
[...More...]

"Post-transition Metal" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Boron Group
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh). The elements in the boron group are characterized by having three electrons in their outer energy levels (valence layers).[1] These elements have also been referred to as the triels.[note 1] Boron
Boron
is classified as a metalloid while the rest, with the possible exception of nihonium, are considered post-transition metals. Boron occurs sparsely, probably because bombardment by the subatomic particles produced from natural radioactivity disrupts its nuclei. Aluminium
Aluminium
occurs widely on earth, and indeed is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust (8.3%).[3] Gallium
Gallium
is found in the earth with an abundance of 13 ppm
[...More...]

"Boron Group" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 6 Element
Legendprimordial elementsynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:black=solidv t eGroup 6, numbered by IUPAC
IUPAC
style, is a group of elements in the periodic table. Its members are chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), and seaborgium (Sg). These are all transition metals and chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are refractory metals. The period 8 elements of group 6 are likely to be either unpenthexium (Uph) or unpentoctium (Upo). This may not be possible; drip instability may imply that the periodic table ends around unbihexium. Neither unpenthexium nor unpentoctium have been synthesized, and it is unlikely that this will happen in the near future. Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in its electron configuration, especially the outermost shells resulting in trends in chemical behavior:Z Element No
[...More...]

"Group 6 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 7 Element
Legendprimordial elementelement by radioactive decaysynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:black=solidv t eGroup 7, numbered by IUPAC nomenclature, is a group of elements in the periodic table. They are manganese (Mn), technetium (Tc), rhenium (Re), and bohrium (Bh). All known elements of group 7 are transition metals. Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in their electron configurations, especially the outermost shells resulting in trends in chemical behavior.Contents1 Chemistry 2 History 3 Occurrence 4 Production 5 Applications 6 Precautions 7 Biological role and precautions 8 See also 9 ReferencesChemistry[edit]Z Element No
[...More...]

"Group 7 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 9 Element
Group 9, numbered by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature, is a group of chemical element in the periodic table. Members are cobalt (Co), rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir) and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized meitnerium (Mt). These are all transition metals in the d-block. All known isotopes of meitnerium are radioactive with short half-lives, and it is not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories. Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior; however, rhodium deviates from the pattern.Contents1 Chemistry 2 History 3 Occurrence 4 Production 5 Precautions 6 Biological role 7 Applications 8 See alsoChemistry[edit]Z Element No
[...More...]

"Group 9 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 10 Element
Legendprimordial elementsynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:black=solidv t eGroup 10, numbered by current IUPAC
IUPAC
style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds). All are d-block transition metals. All known isotopes of darmstadtium are radioactive with short half-lives, and are not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories. Like other groups, the members of this group show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, although for this group they are particularly weak, with palladium being an exceptional case
[...More...]

"Group 10 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 11 Element
Group 11, by modern IUPAC
IUPAC
numbering,[1] is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au). Roentgenium
Roentgenium
(Rg) is also placed in this group in the periodic table, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves like the heavier homologue to gold. Group 11 is also known as the coinage metals, due to their former usage
[...More...]

"Group 11 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 12 Element
Group 12, by modern IUPAC
IUPAC
numbering,[1] is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table. It includes zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg).[2][3][4] The further inclusion of copernicium (Cn) in group 12 is supported by recent experiments on individual copernicium atoms.[5] Formerly this group was named IIB (pronounced as "group two B", as the "II" is a Roman numeral) by CAS and old IUPAC system.[note 1] The three group 12 elements that occur naturally are zinc, cadmium and mercury. They are all widely used in electric and electronic applications, as well as in various alloys. The first two members of the group share similar properties as they are solid metals under standard conditions. Mercury is the only metal that is a liquid at room temperature. While zinc is very important in the biochemistry of living organisms, cadmium and mercury are both highly toxic
[...More...]

"Group 12 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Pnictogen
Legendprimordial elementsynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color: red=gas, black=solidv t eA pnictogen[1] /ˈnɪktədʒən/ is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the nitrogen family. It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called Group 15. In CAS and the old IUPAC systems it was called Group VA and Group VB respectively (pronounced "group five A" and "group five B", "V" for the Roman numeral 5).[2] In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still usually called Group V.[3] The "five" ("V") in the historical names comes from the "pentavalency" of nitrogen, reflected by the stoichiometry of compounds such as N2O5
[...More...]

"Pnictogen" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Carbon Group
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). In modern IUPAC notation, it is called Group 14. In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still universally called Group IV
[...More...]

"Carbon Group" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Group 4 Element
Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table. It contains the elements titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf) and rutherfordium (Rf). This group lies in the d-block of the periodic table. The group itself has not acquired a trivial name; it belongs to the broader grouping of the transition metals. The three Group 4 elements that occur naturally are titanium, zirconium and hafnium. The first three members of the group share similar properties; all three are hard refractory metals under standard conditions. However, the fourth element rutherfordium (Rf), has been synthesized in the laboratory; none of its isotopes have been found occurring in nature. All isotopes of rutherfordium are radioactive
[...More...]

"Group 4 Element" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chalcogen
Legendprimordial elementnaturally occurring by radioactive decaysynthetic element Atomic number
Atomic number
color:red=gas, black=solidv t eThe chalcogens (/ˈkælkədʒɪnz/) are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well.[1] Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term "chalcogen" altogether, due to its very different chemical behavior from sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium
[...More...]

"Chalcogen" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Halogen
Legendprimordial elementelement from decayAtomic number color:black=solid, green=liquid, red=gasv t eThe halogens (/ˈhælədʒən, ˈheɪ-, -loʊ-, -ˌdʒɛn/[1][2][3]) are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created element 117 (tennessine, Ts) may also be a halogen. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, this group is known as group 17. The symbol X is often used generically to refer to any halogen. The name "halogen" means "salt-producing". When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts, including calcium fluoride, sodium chloride (common table salt), silver bromide and potassium iodide. The group of halogens is the only periodic table group that contains elements in all three main states of matter at standard temperature and pressure
[...More...]

"Halogen" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.