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Zhuang Language
The ZHUANG LANGUAGES (autonym : Vahcuengh (pre-1982: Vaƅcueŋƅ, Sawndip
Sawndip
: 話僮), from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang'; simplified Chinese : 壮语; traditional Chinese : 壯語; pinyin : Zhuàngyǔ) are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China
China
in the province of Guangxi
Guangxi
and adjacent parts of Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guangdong
Guangdong
. The Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
do not form a monophyletic linguistic unit, as northern and southern Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
are more closely related to other Tai languages than to each other. Northern Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
form a dialect continuum with Tai varieties across the provincial border in Guizhou
Guizhou
, which are designated as Bouyei , whereas Southern Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
form another dialect continuum with Nung , Tay and Caolan in Vietnam
Vietnam
. Standard Zhuang is based on the northern Zhuang dialect of Wuming . The Tai languages are believed to have been originally spoken in what is now southern China, with speakers of the Southwestern Tai languages (which include Thai , Lao and Shan ) having emigrated in the face of Chinese expansion
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Tai–kadai Languages
The TAI–KADAI languages, also known as KRA–DAI, DAIC, and KADAI, are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China
China
, northeast India
India
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. They include Thai and Lao , the national languages of Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
respectively. There are nearly 100 million speakers of these languages in the world. Ethnologue lists 95 languages in this family, with 62 of these being in the Tai branch. The diversity of the Tai–Kadai languages in southern China, especially in Guizhou
Guizhou
and Hainan
Hainan
, suggests that this is close to their homeland . The Tai branch moved south into Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
only about a thousand years ago, founding the nations that later became Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
in what had been Austroasiatic territory. The name "Tai–Kadai" is controversial, and arguments have been made that it should be replaced. The name comes from an obsolete bifurcation of the family into two branches, Tai and Kadai (all else). Yet the name Kadai suggests that it includes Tai, and as such is sometimes used to refer to the entire family
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Tai Languages
The Tai languages are: Northern Tai / Northern Zhuang Central Tai / Southern Zhuang Southwestern Tai / Thai The TAI or ZHUANG–TAI languages (Thai : ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration : _p̣hās̛̄āthay_ or _p̣hās̛̄ātay_) are a branch of the Tai–Kadai language family . The Tai languages include the most widely spoken of the Tai–Kadai languages, including standard Thai or Siamese, the national language of Thailand ; Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos ; Myanmar 's Shan language ; and Zhuang , a major language in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Internal classification * 3.1 Haudricourt (1956) * 3.2 Li (1977) * 3.3 Gedney (1989) * 3.4 Pittayaporn (2009) * 3.4.1 Overview * 3.4.2 Sound changes * 4 Reconstruction * 5 Comparison * 6 Writing systems * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links NAMECognates with the name _Tai_ (_Thai, Dai_, etc.) are used by speakers of many Tai languages. The term _Tai_ is now well-established as the generic name in English. In his book _The Tai-Kadai Languages_ Anthony Diller claims that Lao scholars he has met are not pleased with Lao being regarded as a Tai language. For some, Thai should instead be considered a member of the Lao language family
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Standard Zhuang
STANDARD ZHUANG (autonym : Zhuang : _Vahcuengh_ (pre-1982: _Vaƅcueŋƅ_; Sawndip : 话壮); simplified Chinese : 壮语; traditional Chinese : 壯語; pinyin : _Zhuàngyǔ_) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages , which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages . Its pronunciation is based on that of the Yongbei Zhuang dialect of Shuangqiao, Guangxi in Wuming District , Guangxi with some influence from Fuliang, also in Wuming District, while its vocabulary is based mainly on northern dialects. The official standard covers both spoken and written Zhuang. It is the national standard of the Zhuang languages, though in Yunnan a local standard is used. CONTENTS * 1 Phonology * 2 Classification * 3 Domains of use * 4 Official Exam * 5 Differences from Wuming Zhuang * 6 Writing systems * 7 Example * 8 References PHONOLOGY _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Sawndip
ZHUANG CHARACTERS, or _SAWNDIP_ , are logograms derived from Han characters and used by the Zhuang people of Guangxi , China to write the Zhuang languages for more than one thousand years. In Mandarin Chinese , these are called Gǔ ZHUàNGZì (Chinese : 古壮字; literally: "old Zhuang characters") or FāNGKUàI ZHUàNGZì (方块壮字; "square shaped Zhuang characters"). _SAWNDIP_ (Sawndip: 𭨡𮄫 ) is a Zhuang word that means "immature characters". The Zhuang word for Chinese characters used in the Chinese language is _sawgun_ (Sawndip: 𭨡倱; lit. "characters of the Han"), _gun_ is Zhuang for the Han Chinese . The name "old Zhuang script" is usually used to distinguish it of the official alphabet based script Standard Zhuang . Even now, in traditional and less formal domains, Sawndip is more often used than alphabetical scripts
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Sawgoek
SAWGOEK ("root script", IPA : /θaːu˨˦kok/) or SAWVA ("insect script", /θaːu˨˦waː˨˦/) was a mythological ancient script mentioned in the Zhuang creation epic Baeu Rodo (modern Zhuang script : Baeuqloegdoz). The primordial god Baeu Ro was said to have brought sawgoek containing four thousand glyphs along with fire to the Zhuang people, however the people in their unfamiliarity with fire, stored the fire under a thatched roof, causing the house to catch on fire. The sawgoek was consumed in the ensuing conflagration, and knowledge of writing was lost. Some Zhuang scholars believe that this myth stems from a vague remembrance of sawgoek in the collective consciousness of the Zhuang people long after knowledge of the writing system had been forgotten. Examples of stone and pottery inscriptions from artefacts unearthed in Wuming , Pingle , and Qinzhou
Qinzhou
, Guangxi SAWVEH ("etched script", /θaːu˨˦weː˧/) refers to some 140 individual symbols inscribed on stonework, pottery, and bronzeworks excavated in western Guangxi , dating from the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age , the earliest examples being contemporary with the Shang Dynasty in the North China Plain
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code_, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international, and formal, shorthand for indicating languages
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code_, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables. CONTENTS * 1 History and relationship to other ISO 639 standards * 2 B and T codes * 3 Scopes and types * 3.1 Collections of languages * 3.2 Reserved for local use * 3.3 Special situations * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY AND RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER ISO 639 STANDARDSWork was begun on the ISO 639-2 standard in 1989, because the ISO 639-1 standard, which uses only two-letter codes for languages, is not able to accommodate a sufficient number of languages. The ISO 639-2 standard was first released in 1998. In practice, ISO 639-2 has largely been superseded by ISO 639-3 (2007), which includes codes for all the individual languages in ISO 639-2 plus many more
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European . ISO 639-3 is intended for use as metadata codes in a wide range of applications. It is widely used in computer and information systems, such as the Internet, in which many languages need to be supported. In archives and other information storage, they are used in cataloging systems, indicating what language a resource is in or about. The codes are also frequently used in the linguistic literature and elsewhere to compensate for the fact that language names may be obscure or ambiguous
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Iso 639 Macrolanguage
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. In defining some of its language codes, some are classified as MACROLANGUAGES, which include other individual languages in the standard. This category exists to assist mapping between another set of languages codes, ISO 639-2 , and ISO 639-3. ISO 639-3 is curated by SIL International, ISO 639-2 is curated by the Library of Congress (USA). The mapping often has the implication that it covers borderline cases where two language varieties may be considered strongly divergent dialects of the same language or very closely related languages (dialect continuums ). It may also encompass situations when there are language varieties that are sometimes considered to be varieties of the same language and sometimes different languages for ethnic or political rather than linguistic reasons. However, this is not its primary function and the classification is not evenly applied. For example, "Chinese " is a macrolanguage encompassing many languages that are not mutually intelligible, but the languages "Standard German ", "Bavarian German ", and other closely related languages do not form a macrolanguage despite being more mutually intelligible. Other examples include Tajiki not being part of the Persian macrolanguage despite sharing much lexicon, and Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
not forming a macrolanguage
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Dai Zhuang
DAI ZHUANG is a Tai language
Tai language
spoken in Wenshan Prefecture , Yunnan
Yunnan
, China
China
, in Yanshan, Wenshan, Maguan, Malipo, Guangnan counties. It is also spoken in Honghe Prefecture and Vietnam. The largest concentrations are in Wenshan (50% of total Zhuang population) and Yanshan (20% of total Zhuang population) counties (Johnson 2011b). CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Subdivisions and distribution * 3 Phonology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading NAMESBelow are various names (both autonyms and exonyms) for speakers of Dai Zhuang (Johnson 2011a:43). * Pu Dai (濮岱) * IPA: * Tuliao, Tulao (土僚、土老) * Tuzu (土族) * Pulao, Puliao (濮僚; ancient Chinese ethnonym)SUBDIVISIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONJohnson (2011b) splits Dai Zhuang into 4 dialects according to tonal splitting patterns: Northern, Central, Southern, and Northeastern. They roughly correspond with the following ethnic subdivisions (Johnson 2011a). * NORTHERN: Piled Headdress Tu (Da Tou Tu, 搭头土, Daigelai, Black Tulao). Spoken in northern Wenshan and western Yanshan counties. * CENTRAL: Flat Headdress Tu (Ping Tou Tu, 平头土, River Bank Tulao). Spoken around the city of Wenshan, and in central Wenshan County’s Panzhihua (攀枝花) Township. * SOUTHERN: Pointed Headdress Tu (Jian Tou Tu, 尖头土)
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Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang
EASTERN HONGSHUIHE ZHUANG is a Northern Tai language spoken in Guangxi , China