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Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui
CBE
CBE
(1896–1980) was a Chinese Nationalist
Chinese Nationalist
general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
and Chinese Communist forces in his military career. He served as commander-in-chief of the 8th Army Group and commander-in-chief of NRA ground force before retiring in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1949.Contents1 Life1.1 Early life 1.2 World War II 1.3 Chinese Civil War 1.4 Vietnamese Revolution 1.5 Retirement2 Military career 3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 BibliographyLife[edit] Early life[edit] Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui
was born in 1896 in Shixing County, Guangdong
Guangdong
province
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Republic Of China Army
The Republic of China
Republic of China
Army
Army
(ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Armed Forces
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Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
(Chinese: 陳炯明; Wade–Giles: Ch’en Chiung-ming; 13 January 1878 – 22 September 1933), also romanized as Chan Kwing Ming in Cantonese, was a revolutionary figure in the early period of the Republic of China. Contents1 Life 2 Legacy 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
was born in 1878 at Haifeng, Guangdong, China. He was by training a lawyer and became a Qing legislator, a republican revolutionary, a military leader, a civil administrator and a federalist who sought to reconstruct China
China
as a democratic republic. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Alliance in 1909 and obtained the post of commander-in-chief of the Guangdong
Guangdong
Army
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CBE
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
British Empire
is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.[2] It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female.[3] There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions
Dominions
of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India
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Republic Of China (1912-1949)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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Chinese Nationalist
The Kuomintang of China[6][7] (/ˈkwoʊˌmɪnˈtɑːŋ, -ˈtæŋ/,[8] KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China)[9] is a major political party in the Republic of China (ROC or Taiwan). The predecessor of the KMT, the Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he later ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of China in 1928, ended the chaos of Warlord Era
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Warlord Era
The Warlord
Warlord
Era (simplified Chinese: 军阀时代; traditional Chinese: 軍閥時代; pinyin: Jūnfá shídài, 1916–1928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang. In historiography, the era began when Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
died in 1916, and lasted until 1928 when the Nationalist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) officially unified China through the Northern Expedition, marking the beginning of the Nanjing
Nanjing
decade
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Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army
Army
(IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; " Army
Army
of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army
Army
General Staff Office and the Ministry of War, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army
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Chinese Communist Party
The Communist Party of China
China
(CPC), often referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party of China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government from mainland China
China
after the Chinese Civil War, thus leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China
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National Revolutionary Army
The National Revolutionary Army
Army
(NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army
Army
(革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It also became the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928
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Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Chinese: 广州), formerly known as Canton,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
in southern China.[7] Located on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9] Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is situated at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, an area that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet
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Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan
(simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢; pinyin: Wǔhàn; [ù.xân] ( listen)) is the capital of Hubei
Hubei
province, People's Republic of China,[13] and is the most populous city in Central China.[14] It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
at the intersection of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Han rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of three cities, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan
Wuhan
is known as 'China's Thoroughfare' (zh);[1] it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities
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Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
(/ˈsʊn ˈjɑːtˈsɛn/; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)[1][2] was a Chinese physician, writer, philosopher, calligrapher[3] and revolutionary, the first president and founding father of the Republic of China. As the foremost pioneer and first leader of a Republican China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China
China
(ROC) and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC). Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(the last imperial dynasty of China) during the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution. He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China
China
when it was founded in 1912
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Wu Peifu
Wu Peifu[1] or Wu P'ei-fu[2] (simplified Chinese: 吴佩孚; traditional Chinese: 吳佩孚; pinyin: Wú Pèifú; IPA: [ú pʰèɪ̯fú]; April 22, 1874 – December 4, 1939), was a major figure in the struggles between the warlords who dominated Republican China from 1916-27.Contents1 Early career 2 Zhili Clique 3 Zhili-Anhui War 4 First Zhili–Fengtian War 5 Control of the Beiyang Government 6 Second Zhili–Fengtian War 7 Northern Expedition 8 Later years 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksEarly career[edit] Born in Shandong
Shandong
Province in eastern China, Wu initially received a traditional Chinese education. He later joined the Baoding Military Academy (保定軍校) in Beijing
Beijing
and embarked on a career as a professional soldier
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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
(/ˈtʃæŋ kaɪˈʃɛk, ˈdʒjɑːŋ/;[3] 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China
Republic of China
between 1928 and 1975. Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT
KMT
following the Canton Coup
Canton Coup
in early 1926
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