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Zest (ingredient)
ZEST is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon , orange , citron , and lime . Zest is used to add flavor ("zest") to foods. In terms of fruit anatomy , zest is obtained from the flavedo (exocarp ) which is also referred to as zest. The flavedo and white pith (albedo ) of a citrus fruit together makes up its peel . The amounts of both flavedo and pith are variable among citrus fruits, and may be adjusted by the manner in which they are prepared. Citrus
Citrus
peel may be used fresh, dried, candied, or pickled in salt. Cross-section of an orange. The flavedo is zested; the bitter white albedo or pith is generally not used. CONTENTS * 1 Preparation * 2 Variation between fruit * 3 Uses * 4 Health * 5 References PREPARATION More orange flavedo than white albedo; contrast with orange, right
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Chocolate
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ ( listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala
Guatemala
), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: , a Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor
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Ossobuco
OSSOBUCO (pronounced ) is a Milanese speciality of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth. It is often garnished with gremolata and traditionally served with risotto alla milanese. There are two types of ossobuco: a modern version that has tomatoes and the original version which does not. The older version, ossobuco in bianco, is flavoured with cinnamon, bay leaf and gremolata. The modern and more popular recipe includes tomatoes, carrots, celery and onions; gremolata is optional. While veal is the traditional meat used for Ossobuco
Ossobuco
other meats such as pork may be used. The ossobuco bone is known to pose as danger to dogs as it does easily get caught in the mandibles
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Sauce
In cooking , a SAUCE is liquid , cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods . Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce
Sauce
is a French word taken from the Latin
Latin
salsa, meaning salted. Possibly the oldest recorded European sauce is garum , the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
; while doubanjiang , the Chinese soy bean paste is mentioned in Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
in 3rd century BC. Sauces need a liquid component, but some sauces (for example, pico de gallo salsa or chutney ) may contain more solid components than liquid. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for sweet or savory dishes
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Sorbet
SORBET /sɔːrˈbeɪ/ , is a frozen dessert made from sweetened water with flavouring (typically fruit juice or fruit purée , wine , liqueur or, very rarely, honey ). CONTENTS * 1 Classification and variants * 2 Early history and folklore * 3 Distinction from sherbet * 3.1 American terminology * 3.2 British terminology * 3.3 Central and Western Asia terminology * 3.4 Canadian terminology * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Notations * 5.2 Footnotes CLASSIFICATION AND VARIANTS Sorbet
Sorbet
is often confused with water ice and often taken to be the same as (American) sherbet (see below). In the UK and Australia, sherbet refers to a fizzy powder type of sweet
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Candy
CANDY, also called SWEETS or LOLLIES, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery , encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate , chewing gum , and sugar candy . Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied . Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes . Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert. The same food may be a candy in one culture and a dessert in another
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Confectionery
CONFECTIONERY, also called SWEETS or CANDY, is sweet food. The term varies among English-speaking countries. In general, though, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, BAKERS\' CONFECTIONS and SUGAR CONFECTIONS. Bakers' confectionery, also called FLOUR CONFECTIONS, includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods . In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections are more dominant. Sugar
Sugar
confectionery includes sweets, candy, candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum and bubblegum, sweetmeats, pastillage , and other confections that are made primarily of sugar. In some cases, CHOCOLATE CONFECTIONS (confections made of chocolate ) are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. The words candy (US and Canada), sweets (UK and Ireland), and lollies (Australia and New Zealand) are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery
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Cookie
A COOKIE is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour , sugar and some type of oil or fat . It may include other ingredients such as raisins , oats , chocolate chips , nuts, etc. In most English-speaking countries except for the United States and Canada, crisp cookies are called biscuits . Chewier biscuits are sometimes called cookies even in the United Kingdom. Some cookies may also be named by their shape, such as date squares or bars. Cookies or biscuits may be mass-produced in factories, made in small bakeries or homemade. Biscuit
Biscuit
or cookie variants include sandwich biscuits , such as custard creams , Jammie Dodgers , Bourbons and Oreos , with marshmallow or jam filling and sometimes dipped in chocolate or another sweet coating. Cookies are often served with beverages such as milk , coffee or tea
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Biscuit
BISCUIT is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products. The term is applied to two distinct products in North America and the Commonwealth of Nations and Europe
Europe
. The North American biscuit is typically a soft, leavened quick bread , and is covered in the article Biscuit (bread)
Biscuit (bread)
. This article covers the other type of biscuit, which is typically hard, flat and unleavened
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Pudding
PUDDING is a kind of food that can be either a dessert or a savory dish . The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin, originally from the Latin botellus, meaning "small sausage ", referring to encased meats used in medieval European puddings. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and some of the Commonwealth countries, the word pudding can be used to describe both sweet and savory dishes. Unless qualified, however, the term in everyday usage typically denotes a dessert; in the UK, pudding is used as a synonym for a dessert course. Dessert puddings are rich, fairly homogeneous starch- or dairy-based desserts such as rice pudding , steamed cake mixtures such as Treacle sponge pudding with or without the addition of ingredients such as dried fruits as in a Christmas pudding
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Salad
A SALAD is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually featuring vegetables. They are typically served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad which is served warm. Salads may contain virtually any type of ready-to-eat food. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens like lettuce, arugula, kale or spinach; they are common enough that the word salad alone often refers specifically to garden salads. Other types include bean salad , tuna salad , fattoush , Greek salad , and Japanese sōmen salad (a noodle-based salad). The sauce used to flavor a salad is commonly called a salad dressing ; well-known types include ranch , Thousand Island , and vinaigrette
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Chutney
CHUTNEY ( Devanagari
Devanagari
– "चटनी" also transliterated CHATNEY or CHATNI, Sindhi : چٽڻي‎) is a sauce in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent that can include such forms as tomato relish , a ground peanut garnish or a yoghurt , cucumber and mint dip. An offshoot that took root in Anglo-Indian cuisine
Anglo-Indian cuisine
is usually a tart fruit such as sharp apples , rhubarb or damson pickle made milder by an equal weight of sugar (usually demerara or brown sugar to replace jaggery in some Indian sweet chutneys). Vinegar
Vinegar
was added to the recipe for English-style chutney that traditionally aims to give a long shelf life so that autumn fruit can be preserved for use throughout the year (as are jams , jellies and pickles ) or else to be sold as a commercial product
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Dry Martini
The MARTINI is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth , and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist . Over the years, the martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages. H. L. Mencken
H. L. Mencken
called the martini "the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet " and E. B. White
E. B. White
called it "the elixir of quietude". CONTENTS * 1 Preparation * 2 Origins and mixology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PREPARATION Three Martinis with olives as a garnish By 1922 the Martini reached its most recognizable form in which London
London
dry gin and dry vermouth are combined at a ratio of 2:1, stirred in a mixing glass with ice cubes, with the optional addition of orange or aromatic bitters, then strained into a chilled cocktail glass . Over time the generally expected garnish became the drinker's choice of a green olive or a twist of lemon peel
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Mulled Wine
MULLED WINE is a beverage usually made with red wine along with various mulling spices and sometimes raisins. It is served hot or warm and is alcoholic , although there are non-alcoholic versions of mulled wine. It is a traditional drink during winter , especially around Christmas . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Britain * 2.1 In traditional culture * 2.2 In contemporary culture * 3 Glühwein * 4 Nordic glögg * 5 Other countries * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links ORIGINS Wine was first recorded as spiced and heated in Rome during the 2nd century . The Romans travelled across Europe , conquering much of it and trading with the rest. The legions brought wine and viticulture with them up to the Rhine and Danube rivers and to the Scottish border, along with their recipes
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Enilconazole
ENILCONAZOLE (synonyms IMAZALIL, CHLORAMIZOLE) is a fungicide widely used in agriculture, particularly in the growing of citrus fruits. Trade names include FRESHGARD, FUNGAFLOR, and NUZONE. Enilconazole
Enilconazole
is also used in veterinary medicine as a topical antimycotic . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use on crops * 3 Hazards * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIn 1983, enilconazole was first introduced by Janssen Pharmaceutica and it has since consistently been registered as an antifungal postharvest agent. Shortly after its introduction, enilconazole was used for seed treatment in 1984 and later used in chicken hatcheries in 1990. Like any fungicide, it was used to protect crops from becoming diseased and unable to yield a profitable harvest. Today, it continues to be utilized as an agricultural aid for its contribution to maintaining crop integrity and production output
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Carcinogen
A CARCINOGEN is any substance, radionuclide , or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis , the formation of cancer . This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles , which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos , certain dioxins , and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances. Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic ; thus, their effect can be insidious
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