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Zest (ingredient)
Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor ("zest") to foods. In terms of fruit anatomy, the zest is obtained from the flavedo (exocarp) which is also referred to as zest.[1] The flavedo and white pith (albedo) of a citrus fruit together makes up its peel. The amounts of both flavedo and pith are variable among citrus fruits, and may be adjusted by the manner in which they are prepared. Citrus
Citrus
peel may be used fresh, dried, candied, or pickled in salt.Cross-section of an orange
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Carcinogen
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke
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Salad
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.[1][2] Salads are typically served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad which is served warm. Salads may contain virtually any type of ready-to-eat food. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens like lettuce, arugula, kale or spinach; they are common enough that the word salad alone often refers specifically to garden salads. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, fattoush, Greek salad, and Japanese sōmen salad (a noodle-based salad)
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Biscuit
Biscuit
Biscuit
is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products. The term is applied to two distinct products in North America and the Commonwealth of Nations and Europe. The North American biscuit is typically a soft, leavened quick bread, and is covered in the article Biscuit
Biscuit
(bread). This article covers the other type of biscuit, which is typically hard, flat and unleavened.Contents1 Variations in meaning 2 Etymology 3 History3.1 Biscuits for travel 3.2 Confectionery biscuits4 Biscuits today4.1 Commonwealth of Nations and Europe 4.2 North America5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksVariations in meaning[edit]In Commonwealth nations and Ireland, a biscuit is a small baked product that would be called either a "cookie" or a "cracker" in the United States
United States
and most of English-speaking Canada
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Pudding
Pudding
Pudding
is a type of food that can be either a dessert or a savory dish. The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin, originally from the Latin botellus, meaning "small sausage", referring to encased meats used in medieval European puddings.[1] The modern usage of the word pudding to denote primarily desserts has evolved over time from the almost exclusive use of the term to describe savory dishes, specifically those created using a process similar to sausages where meat and other ingredients in a mostly liquid form are encased and then steamed or boiled to set the contents. Black pudding, Yorkshire pudding, and haggis survive from this tradition. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and some of the Commonwealth countries, the word pudding can be used to describe both sweet and savory dishes
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Confectionery
Confectionery
Confectionery
is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult.[1] In general, though, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections.[2] Bakers' confectionery, also called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods. Sugar
Sugar
confectionery includes candies (sweets in British English), candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum, bubble gum, pastillage, and other confections that are made primarily of sugar
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Candy
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient[citation needed]. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes. Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert
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Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
(from náhuatl: xocolātl ) (/ˈtʃɒklɪt, -kəlɪt, -lət, ˈtʃɔːk-/ ( listen)) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE.[1] The majority of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs.[2] The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Ossobuco
Ossobuco
Ossobuco
(pronounced [ˌɔssoˈbuːko]; Milanese: òss bus [ˌɔzˈbyːs]) is a Milanese speciality of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth. It is often garnished with gremolata and traditionally served with either risotto alla milanese or polenta, depending on the regional variation. There are two types of ossobuco: a modern version that has tomatoes and the original version which does not. The older version, ossobuco in bianco, is flavoured with cinnamon, bay leaf and gremolata. The modern and more popular recipe includes tomatoes, carrots, celery and onions; gremolata is optional
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Sauce
In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods. Sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. Sauce
Sauce
is a French word taken from the Latin
Latin
salsa, meaning salted. Possibly the oldest recorded European sauce is garum, the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks; while doubanjiang, the Chinese soy bean paste is mentioned in Rites of Zhou
Rites of Zhou
in 3rd century BC. Sauces need a liquid component, but some sauces (for example, pico de gallo salsa or chutney) may contain more solid components than liquid. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for sweet or savory dishes. They may be prepared and served cold, like mayonnaise, prepared cold but served lukewarm like pesto, cooked and served warm like bechamel or cooked and served cold like apple sauce
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Sorbet
Sorbet
Sorbet
is a frozen dessert made from sweetened water with flavoring (typically fruit juice or fruit purée, wine, liqueur or, very rarely, honey).Contents1 Classification and variants 2 Early history and folklore 3 Distinction from sherbet3.1 American terminology 3.2 British terminology 3.3 Central and Western Asia terminology 3.4 Canadian terminology[11]4 See also 5 References5.1 Notations 5.2 FootnotesClassification and variants[edit] Sorbet
Sorbet
is often confused with water ice and often taken to be the same as (American) sherbet (see below). In the UK and Australia, sherbet refers to a fizzy powder type of sweet
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Chutney
Chutney
Chutney
is a sauce or a dry base for a sauce in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
that can include such forms as tomato relish, a ground peanut garnish or a yogurt, cucumber and mint dip. An offshoot that took root in Anglo-Indian cuisine
Anglo-Indian cuisine
is usually a tart fruit such as sharp apples, rhubarb or damson pickle made milder by an equal weight of sugar (usually demerara or brown sugar to replace jaggery in some Indian sweet chutneys). Vinegar
Vinegar
was added to the recipe for English-style chutney that traditionally aims to give a long shelf life so that autumn fruit can be preserved for use throughout the year (as are jams, jellies and pickles) or else to be sold as a commercial product
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Cakes
Cake
Cake
is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked. In its oldest forms, cakes were modifications of breads, but cakes now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or elaborate, and that share features with other desserts such as pastries, meringues, custards, and pies. Typical cake ingredients are flour, sugar, eggs, butter or oil or margarine, a liquid, and leavening agents, such as baking soda or baking powder. Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried, candied, or fresh fruit, nuts, cocoa, and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves,nuts or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders, or candied fruit.[1] Cake
Cake
is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays
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Lemon Liqueur
Lemon liqueur is a liqueur made from lemons, liquor, and sugar. It is light to bright lemon yellow in color; intensely lemony in flavor; clear, cloudy, or opaque; and sweet or sweet and sour. Lemon zest is used, water may be added, and the liqueur is not sour. Milk or cream may be added to make a lemon cream liqueur. Lemon juice is not used to alter the taste and affect the stability of the lemon liqueur.Contents1 Production 2 Variations 3 Customs 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksProduction[edit] To produce the Lemon liqueur requires sugar, water, lemon zest, liquor, and time to mature. Lemon zest is soaked in high proof neutral spirits to extract from it the lemon oil (an essential oil). The extraction is then diluted with simple syrup. Variations[edit] Different varieties of lemon are used to produce different flavors. The variety of lemon used is usually dictated by region. Various alcohols can be used to give distinct flavors
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Liquor
A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor, hard liquor or hard alcohol is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of liquid drinks made with grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process purifies the liquid and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV).[1] As distilled beverages contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones. As examples, this term does not include beverages such as beer, wine, mead, sake, or cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all have a relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy
Brandy
is a spirit produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV of over 35%
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