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Yom Kippur
YOM KIPPUR (/jɔːm, joʊm, jɒm ˈkɪpər, kɪˈpʊər/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: יוֹם כִּיפּוּר‎, IPA: , or יום הכיפורים‎), also known as the DAY OF ATONEMENT, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism
Judaism
. Its central themes are atonement and repentance . Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer , often spending most of the day in synagogue services
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e NEVI\'IM (/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/ ; Hebrew : נְבִיאִים‎ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh
Tanakh
), between the Torah
Torah
(instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים ראשונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim) consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel
Samuel
and Kings; while the Latter Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים אחרונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Aharonim) include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and The Twelve minor prophets
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Ketuvim
KETUVIM (/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/ ; Biblical Hebrew : כְּתוּבִים‎‎ Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh
Tanakh
( Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi\'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings". Another name used for this section is Hagiographa . The Ketuvim
Ketuvim
are believed to have been written under divine inspiration , but with one level less authority than that of prophecy . Found among the Writings within the Hebrew scriptures, I and II Chronicles form one book, along with Ezra and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
which form a single unit entitled " Ezra–Nehemiah "
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Zohar
The ZOHAR ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: זֹהַר‎, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah . It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses
Moses
) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism , mythical cosmogony , and mystical psychology . The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God
God
, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash
Midrash
, which elaborates on the Torah
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Jews As The Chosen People
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews
Jews
, via descent from the ancient Israelites , are the chosen people , i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God
God
. The idea of the Israelites being chosen by God
God
is found most directly in the Book of Deuteronomy
Book of Deuteronomy
as the verb bahar (בָּחַ֣ר (Hebrew )), and is alluded to elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible using other terms such as "holy people". Much is written about these topics in rabbinic literature . The three largest Jewish denominations— Orthodox Judaism , Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism —maintain the belief that the Jews
Jews
have been chosen by God for a purpose
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Jewish Ethics
JEWISH ETHICS is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish
Jewish
religion and peoples. Serving as a convergence of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics , the diverse literature of Jewish
Jewish
ethics's broad range of moral concern classifies it as a type of normative ethics . For two millennia, Jewish
Jewish
thought has focussed on the interplay of ethics with the rule of law . The tradition of rabbinic religious law - Halakhah - addresses several problems associated with ethics, including its semi-permeable relation with duties that are usually not punished under law
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Karaite Judaism
KARAITE JUDAISM or KARAISM (also spelt QARAITE JUDAISM or QARAISM), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/ ; Hebrew : יהדות קראית‎, Modern Yahadut Qara'it from, Tiberian Qārāʾîm; meaning "Readers") is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law ) and theology . It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism , which considers the Oral Torah , as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah . Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God
God
were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation
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Reconstructionist Judaism
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (Hebrew : יהדות רקונסטרוציוניסטית‎, yahadút rekonstruktsyonistit, or יהדות מתחדשת‎, yahadút mitkhadéshet) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955 and established a rabbinical college in 1967. There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. Halakha , the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Rabbinic Literature
RABBINIC LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term SIFRUT HAZAL (Hebrew : ספרות חז"ל‎‎ "Literature sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim , Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew : מדרש‎‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— * Jerusalem Ta
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Mishnah Berurah
The MISHNAH BERURAH (Hebrew : משנה ברורה‎‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan ( Poland
Poland
, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life". It was first published in 1904. His Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a commentary on Orach Chayim , the first section of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
which deals with laws of prayer, synagogue , Shabbat and holidays , summarizing the opinions of the Acharonim (post-Medieval rabbinic authorities) on that work. The title Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a reference to the portion in Deuteronomy where Israel is commanded to inscribe God's commandments in large clear writing on a mountainside
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Aruch HaShulchan
ARUCH HASHULCHAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ערוך השולחן) is a chapter-by-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era). Compiled and written by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (1829–1908), the work attempts to be a clear, organized summary of the sources for each chapter of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries, with special emphasis on the positions of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
and Maimonides
Maimonides

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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo
Yosef Karo
in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (