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Yiddish Language
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
Middle High German

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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Judeo-Aramaic Languages
JUDæO-ARAMAIC is a group of Hebrew -influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages . CONTENTS * 1 Early use * 2 Gradual adoption * 3 From Greek conquest to Diaspora * 4 Diaspora * 4.1 20th century * 5 Modern dialects * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography EARLY USEAramaic, like Hebrew, is a Northwest Semitic language , and the two share many features. From the 7th century BCE, Aramaic became the lingua franca of the Middle East
Middle East
. It became the language of diplomacy and trade, but it was not yet used by ordinary Hebrews. As described in 2 Kings 18:26, the messengers of Hezekiah, king of Judah, demand to negotiate with Assyrian ambassadors in Aramaic rather than "Judean" (or "Judahite") so that the common people would not understand
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Slavic Languages
The SLAVIC LANGUAGES (also called SLAVONIC LANGUAGES) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
native to the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international, and formal, shorthand for indicating languages
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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Central Europe
CENTRAL EUROPE lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe . The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity . Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI , Centrope
Centrope
and the Visegrád Four . While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
as very highly developed . Central Europe
Europe
according to The World Factbook (2009), Encyclopædia Britannica , and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie
Brockhaus Enzyklopädie
(1998) Central Europe
Europe
according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography)
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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c
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Klezmer
KLEZMER ( Yiddish : כליזמר or קלעזמער (klezmer), pl. : כליזמרים (klezmorim) – instruments of music) is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe . Played by professional musicians called klezmorim in ensembles known as kapelye, the genre originally consisted largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved considerably as Yiddish -speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924, met and assimilated American jazz
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Lithuanian Jews
LITHUANIAN JEWS or LITVAKS are Jews
Jews
with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(present-day Lithuania
Lithuania
, Belarus
Belarus
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Latvia
Latvia
and the northeastern Suwałki
Suwałki
(Suvalkai) region of Poland
Poland
). The term is sometimes used to cover all Orthodox Jews
Jews
who follow a "Lithuanian" (Ashkenazic and non- Hasidic ) style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background
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