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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Central Europe
Central Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Eastern Europe
Europe
and Western Europe.[1][2][3] The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity.[4][5][6][7][8][7][9][10][11][12][13] Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening",[14] with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope
Centrope
and the Visegrád
Visegrád
Four
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Middle High German
Middle High German
High German
(abbreviated MHG, German: Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German
Old High German
and into Early New High German. High German
High German
is defined as those varieties of German which were affected by the Second Sound Shift; the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
and Middle Dutch languages spoken to the North and North West, which did not participate in this sound change, are not part of MHG. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language (mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache) based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Aramaic Language
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Slavic Languages
The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Lashon Hakodesh
Lashon Hakodesh (Hebrew: לָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ‬;[1] lit. "the tongue [of] holiness" or "the Holy Tongue"), also spelled L'shon Hakodesh or Leshon Hakodesh (Hebrew: לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ‎‬),[2] is a Jewish term and appellation attributed to the Hebrew language, or sometimes to a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, in which its religious texts and prayers were written, and served, during the Medieval Hebrew era, for religious purposes, liturgy and Halakha – in contrary to the secular tongue, which served for the routine daily needs, such as the Yiddish language.Contents1 Origins in the Classical texts 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingOrigins in the Classical texts[edit] The phrase's first appearance is already in the Mishnah:"The following may be recited in any language: The Torah-portion of 'Sotah', the confession made at the presentation of the tithe, the 'Shema', and the 'Prayer' …The following are recited in the Holy
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva
(/jəˈʃiːvə/; Hebrew: ישיבה‬, lit. "sitting"; pl. ישיבות‬, yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud
Talmud
and the Torah. The studying is usually done through daily shiurim (lectures or classes) as well as in study pairs called ḥavrutas ( Aramaic
Aramaic
for "friendship"[1] or "companionship"[2]). Ḥavruta-style learning is one of the unique features of the yeshiva. In the United States and Israel, the different levels of yeshiva education have different names. In the United States, elementary-school students are enrolled in a yeshiva, post-bar mitzvah-age students learn in a metivta, and undergraduate-level students learn in a beit midrash or yeshiva gedola (Hebrew: ישיבה גדולה‎, lit. "large yeshiva" or "great yeshiva")
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Klezmer
Klezmer
Klezmer
(Yiddish: כליזמר or קלעזמער (klezmer), pl.: כליזמרים (klezmorim) – instruments of music) is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim in ensembles known as kapelye, the genre originally consisted largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved considerably as Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924,[1] met and assimilated American jazz
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The Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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