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Yanbian Changbaishan F.C
Paektu Mountain, Baekdu Mountain or Changbai Mountain, is an active volcano on the China– North Korea
North Korea
border. At 2,744 m (9,003 ft), it is the highest mountain of the Changbai and Baekdudaegan
Baekdudaegan
ranges. North and South Koreans
Koreans
consider the volcano and its caldera lake to be their countries' spiritual home.[2] It is also the highest mountain on the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and in Northeast China.[3] A large crater lake, called Heaven Lake, is in the caldera atop the mountain. The caldera was formed by the VEI 7 "Millennium" or "Tianchi" eruption of 946, which erupted about 100–120 km3 (24–29 cu mi) of tephra
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Changbai Mountains
The Changbai Mountains
Changbai Mountains
are a major mountain range in Northeast Asia. The mountains extend from the Northeast Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin
Jilin
and Liaoning, across the border between China
China
and North Korea
North Korea
(41°41' to 42°51'N; 127°43' to 128°16'E), to the North Korean provinces of Ryanggang
Ryanggang
and Chagang. They are also referred to as the Šanggiyan, Jangbaek, or Ohnan mountains
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1815 Eruption Of Mount Tambora
The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
was one of the most powerful in recorded history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
(VEI) of 7. It is the most recently known VEI-7 event and the only unambiguously confirmed VEI-7 eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 AD.[1] Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
is on the island of Sumbawa
Sumbawa
in present-day Indonesia (formerly part of the Netherlands East Indies). Although its eruption reached a violent climax on 10 April 1815,[2] increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions occurred during the next six months to three years. The ash from the eruption column dispersed around the world and lowered global temperatures, in an event sometimes known as the Year Without a Summer in 1816.[3] This brief period of significant climate change triggered extreme weather and harvest failures in many areas around the world
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Northeast China
Northeast China
China
(simplified Chinese: 中国东北; traditional Chinese: 中國東北; pinyin: Zhōngguó Dōngběi) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Manchuria[a] in the English language. It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin
Jilin
and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省, Dōngběi sānshěng), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia.[b] The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia
Russia
to the north largely by the Amur, Argun and Ussuri
Ussuri
rivers, from North Korea
North Korea
to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
Range
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Crater Lake
A crater lake is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera, such as a maar; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite, or in the crater left by an artificial explosion caused by humans. Sometimes lakes which form inside calderas are called caldera lakes, but often this distinction is not made. Crater lakes covering active (fumarolic) volcanic vents are sometimes known as volcanic lakes, and the water within them is often acidic, saturated with volcanic gases, and cloudy with a strong greenish color
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Heaven Lake
Heaven Lake
Heaven Lake
(Korean: 천지, Ch'ŏnji or Cheonji; Chinese: 天池, Tiānchí; Manchu: Tamun omo or Tamun juce) is a crater lake on the border between China
China
and North Korea. It lies within a caldera atop the volcanic Paektu Mountain, a part of the Baekdudaegan
Baekdudaegan
mountain range and the Changbai mountain range
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Caldera
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact
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Volcanic Explosivity Index
The Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
(VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. It was devised by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982. Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions, defined as less than 10,000 m3 (350,000 cu ft) of tephra ejected; and 8 representing a mega-colossal explosive eruption that can eject 7012100000000000000♠1.0×1012 m3 (240 cubic miles) of tephra and have a cloud column height of over 20 km (12 mi)
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946 Eruption Of Paektu Mountain
The 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain, also known as the Millennium eruption or Tianchi eruption, was one of the most powerful in recorded history and is classified as a VEI 7
VEI 7
event. The eruption resulted in a brief period of significant climate change in China. The date of the eruption has not been precisely determined, but a possible date is A.D. 946.[1] The eruption ejected about 100–120 km3 (24 to 28.8 cubic miles) of tephra.[2][3] The eruption began with a strong Plinian column, and ended with voluminous pyroclastic flows. An average of 5 cm of Plinian ashfall and coignimbrite ashfall covered about 1.5 million km2 of the Sea of Japan and northern Japan.[2] This ash layer has been named the "Baegdusan-Tomakomai ash"(B-Tm). It probably occurred in the winter of A.D
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Tephra
Tephra
Tephra
is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size or emplacement mechanism.[1] Tephra
Tephra
horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.Volcanologists also refer to airborne fragments as pyroclasts. Once clasts have fallen to the ground they remain as tephra unless hot enough to fuse together into pyroclastic rock or tuff.A 2007 eruptive plume at Mount Etna
Mount Etna
producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs.Contents1 Overview 2 Classification 3 Etymology 4 Notes 5 External linksOverview[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Minoan Eruption
The Minoan eruption
Minoan eruption
of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini
Santorini
eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a
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Hatepe Eruption
The Hatepe eruption, named for the Hatepe Plinian pumice tephra layer,[1] sometimes referred to as the Taupo eruption and dated to around 180 AD, was Lake Taupo's most recent major eruption. It is considered New Zealand's largest eruption during the last 20,000 years. The eruption ejected some 120 km3 (29 cu mi), a VEI 7 eruption,[2] of which 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) was ejected in the space of a few minutes. This makes it one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5000 years, comparable to the Minoan eruption in the 2nd millennium BC, the 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain and the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. The resulting ash turned the sky red over Rome and China.[3]Contents1 Stages of eruption 2 Dating the event 3 References 4 External linksStages of eruption[edit] The eruption went through several stages, with six distinct marker horizons identified
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Lake Taupo
Lake
Lake
Taupo
Taupo
is a lake in the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand. It is in the caldera of the Taupo
Taupo
Volcano. With a surface area of 616 square kilometres (238 sq mi), it is the largest lake by surface area in New Zealand, and the second largest freshwater lake by surface area in geopolitical Oceania
Oceania
after Lake
Lake
Murray (Papua New Guinea). Motutaiko Island lies in the south east area of the lake. Lake
Lake
Taupo
Taupo
has a perimeter of approximately 193 kilometres and a deepest point of 186 metres. It is drained by the Waikato River
Waikato River
(New Zealand's longest river), and its main tributaries are the Waitahanui River, the Tongariro River, and the Tauranga Taupo
Taupo
River
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Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
(or Tomboro[3]) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
of Indonesia. Sumbawa
Sumbawa
is flanked to the north and south by oceanic crust. It was formed due to the active subduction zones beneath it, and before its 1815 eruption, was more than 4,300 metres (14,100 feet) high, making it then one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. The large magma chamber under Tambora had been drained by pre-1815 eruptions and underwent several centuries of dormancy as it refilled. Volcanic activity reached a peak that year,[4] when Tambora erupted. With a Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
of 7, the eruption was the largest since the Taupo eruption in 181 AD,[5] and the largest in recorded history
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Mountain Range
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Goryeosa
The Goryeosa or History of Goryeo
Goryeo
is the principal surviving history of Korea's Goryeo
Goryeo
Dynasty. It was composed nearly a century after the fall of Goryeo, during the reign of King Sejong. The king ordered a committee of scholars led by Kim Jongseo and Jeong Inji
Jeong Inji
to compile it, based on primary and secondary sources that are no longer extant.[1][2] The Goryeo-sa, written using Hanja
Hanja
script, consists of 139 volumes, of which 46 consist of chronicles, 39 of geography, 2 of Chronological tables, 50 of Biographies, and 2 of lists. See also[edit]Dongguk Tonggam Samguk Sagi Annals of the Joseon Dynasty History of KoreaReferences[edit]^ 고려사 (高麗史) (in Korean). Empas / EncyKorea.  ^ 고려사 (高麗史) (in Korean)
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