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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Fuzhou Dialect
The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, (simplified Chinese: 福州话; traditional Chinese: 福州話; pinyin: Fúzhōuhuà; FR:  Hók-ciŭ-uâ (help·info)) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min
Eastern Min
branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in eastern Fujian
Fujian
province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones,[3] and has a mainly analytic syntax
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
(MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. The similar Taiwanese Mandarin
Taiwanese Mandarin
is a national language of Taiwan. Standard Singaporean Mandarin
Singaporean Mandarin
is one of the four official languages of Singapore. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Eastern Min
Eastern Min, or Min Dong (simplified Chinese: 闽东语; traditional Chinese: 閩東語; pinyin: Mǐndōngyǔ; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min group of varieties of Chinese. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, the speech of the capital and largest city of Fujian.[4]Contents1 Geographic distribution1.1 China
China
and Taiwan 1.2 America 1.3 Europe 1.4 Japan
Japan
and Malaysia2 Classification2.1 Branches and influences3 References 4 Further readingGeographic distribution[edit] China
China
and Taiwan[edit] Eastern Min
Eastern Min
varieties are mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in People's Republic of China, in and near the cities of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Ningde
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Teochew Dialect
Teochew (Chinese: 潮州話 or 潮汕話; pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà or Cháoshànhuà, Chaozhou
Chaozhou
dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken mainly by the Teochew people
Teochew people
in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
and by their diaspora around the world
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Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet
Taiwanese may refer to:Something from or related to Taiwan
Taiwan
(Formosa) Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan
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Wenzhounese
Wenzhounese (simplified Chinese: 温州话; traditional Chinese: 溫州話; pinyin: wēnzhōuhuà), also known as Oujiang (simplified Chinese: 瓯江话; traditional Chinese: 甌江話; pinyin: ōujiānghuà), Tong Au (simplified Chinese: 东瓯片; traditional Chinese: 東甌片; pinyin: dōngōupiàn) or Auish (simplified Chinese: 瓯语; traditional Chinese: 甌語; pinyin: ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese. It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese, which is spoken to the south in Fujian
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Amoy Dialect
The Amoy
Amoy
dialect or Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Amoynese, Amoy
Amoy
Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen
Xiamen
Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province
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Sichuanese Dialect
Sichuanese (simplified Chinese: 四川话; traditional Chinese: 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan
Hunan
and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other
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Standard Romanization (Cantonese)
Standard Romanization
Romanization
is a romanization system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by Christian missionaries in South China in 1888, particularly relying upon the work of John Morrison Chalmers.[1]:82 By 1914, it ha
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Meyer–Wempe
Meyer–Wempe romanization was the system used by two Roman Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernard F. Meyer
Bernard F. Meyer
and Theodore F
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Sidney Lau Romanisation
Sidney Lau romanisation is a system of romanisation for Cantonese
Cantonese
that was developed in the 1970s by Sidney Lau for teaching Cantonese
Cantonese
to Hong Kong Government expatriates. It is based on the Hong Kong Government's Standard Romanisation which was the result of the work of James D. Ball and Ernst J
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S. L. Wong (phonetic Symbols)
Wong Shik Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a scheme of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton. The scheme has been widely used in Chinese dictionaries published in Hong Kong. The scheme, known as S. L. Wong system (黃錫凌式), is a broad phonemic transcription system based on IPA and its analysis of Cantonese
Cantonese
phonemes is grounded in the theories of Y. R. Chao. Other than the phonemic transcription system, Wong also derived a romanisation scheme published in the same book. See S. L
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S. L. Wong (romanisation)
Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton.Contents1 Phonology1.1 Finals1.1.1 Vowels 1.1.2 Falling diphthong finals 1.1.3 Nasal phoneme finals 1.1.4 Plosive phoneme finals 1.1.5 Nasal consonantoids fully voiced finals1.2 Initials 1.3 Tones2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPhonology[edit] Cantonese, like a number of other varieties of Chinese is monosyllabic
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