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Yakir Yerushalaim
YAKIR YERUSHALAYIM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: יַקִּיר יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎; English: Worthy Citizen of Jerusalem) is an annual citizenship prize in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Israel
Israel
, inaugurated in 1967. The prize is awarded annually by the municipality of the City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to one or more residents of the city who have contributed to the cultural and educational life of the city in some outstanding way. Prize recipients must be over 70 years old. They are selected by a five-panel committee appointed by the mayor, which reviews the candidates and selects a long-time resident of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
whose work on behalf of the city or life story is an inspiration to others. The award ceremony is held on Yom Yerushalayim . Recommendations for the award are submitted by city council members. The final selection among the nominees takes place in the spring. CONTENTS * 1 Recipients * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links RECIPIENTS This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it . Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Jerusalem
JERUSALEM (/dʒəˈruːsələm/ ; Hebrew : יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ _ Yerushalayim _ ; Arabic : القُدس‎‎ _ al-Quds _ ) is a city in the Middle East , located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea . Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. One of the oldest cities in the world , Jerusalem was named as _"Urusalima"_ on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem " after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah . It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism , Christianity and Islam . During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Municipality
A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets . The term _municipality_ may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district . The term is derived from French _municipalité_ and Latin _municipalis_. The English word _municipality_ derives from the Latin social contract _municipium _ (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenshipto the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy). A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York
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Yom Yerushalayim
JERUSALEM DAY (Hebrew : יום ירושלים‎‎, Yom Yerushalayim) is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War . The day is officially marked by state ceremonies and memorial services. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel declared Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day a minor religious holiday to mark the regaining of access to the Western Wall . CONTENTS * 1 Historical background * 2 Celebrations * 2.1 50th anniversary * 2.1.1 Events During the Jubilee Year * 2.1.2 Ceremonies and state events celebrating Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day 2017 * 3 Significance * 3.1 Religious observance * 4 Support and opposition * 5 Ethiopian Jews\' Memorial Day * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
in the entrance to the old city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Six Day War, with Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
and Uzi Narkiss
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Ben-Zion Dinur
BEN-ZION DINUR (Hebrew : בן ציון דינור‎‎, born BEN-ZION DINABURG; 2 January 1884 – 8 July 1973) was a Zionist activist, educator, historian and Israeli politician. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Published works * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYDinaburg was born in 1884 in Khorol in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now Poltava Oblast , Ukraine). He received his education in a Lithuanian yeshivot. He studied under Shimon Shkop in the Telz Yeshiva , and became interested in the Haskalah through Rosh Yeshiva Eliezer Gordon 's polemics. In 1898 he moved to the Slabodka yeshiva and in 1900 he traveled to Vilnius
Vilnius
and was certified a Rabbi
Rabbi
. He then went to Lyubavichi to witness the Chabad-Lubavitch branch of Hasidic Judaism . Between 1902 and 1911 he was engaged in Zionist
Zionist
activism and teaching, which at some point resulted in a brief arrest. In 1910 he married Bilhah Feingold, a teacher who had worked with him in a girls' trade school in Poltava
Poltava
. In 1911 he left his wife and son for two years to attend the Berlin University , where he studied under Michael Rostovtzeff and Eugen Täubler
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Hugo Bergmann
SAMUEL (SCHMUEL) HUGO BERGMAN(N), or SAMUEL BERGMAN (Hebrew : שמואל הוגו ברגמן; December 25, 1883 – June 18, 1975) was an Israeli philosopher . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Inclusions * 4 Writings * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn and raised in Austria-Hungary , Bergmann
Bergmann
was a keen member of the Prague
Prague
intelligentsia visiting the salon group that met at the house of Berta Fanta . Bergmann
Bergmann
was to marry her daughter Else Fanta. He and Else emigrated to Palestine in 1920, and founded, together with Martin Buber
Martin Buber
, the movement Brit Shalom which promoted a "dual-national " area where Jews and Arabs could live under equal conditions. He translated several of Rudolf Steiner 's books about Threefold Social Order to Hebrew . He became a Professor
Professor
at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
, and later on the dean of the university
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Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai
NAFTALI HERZ TUR-SINAI (Hebrew : נפתלי הרץ טור-סיני‎‎; born 13 November 1886 – 17 October 1973) was a Bible scholar , author, and linguist instrumental in the revival of the Hebrew language as a modern, spoken language. Tur-Sinai was the first president of the Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
and founder of its Historical Dictionary Project. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Published works * 4 References * 5 See also BIOGRAPHY Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai was born HARRY TORCZYNER in Lemberg
Lemberg
, Galicia , Austria-Hungary (later Lwów
Lwów
, Poland
Poland
, now Lviv
Lviv
, Ukraine
Ukraine
) in 1886. He moved to Vienna , Austria
Austria
, and then to Berlin , Germany
Germany
in 1919 to be a lecturer at the High School for Jewish Studies in Berlin. He was in Palestine from 1910–1912 and participated in founding Gymnasia Rehavia
Gymnasia Rehavia
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Gymnasia Herzliya in Tel Aviv . He settled in Palestine in 1933
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Shlomo Yosef Zevin
SHLOMO YOSEF ZEVIN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: שלמה יוסף זווין) (born 1888; died 28 February 1978) was one of the most prominent Orthodox , Religious Zionist rabbis of the 20th century. He founded the Encyclopedia Talmudit , a Hebrew
Hebrew
Halachic Encyclopedia , of which he was chief editor until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Rabbinate and scholarship * 2 Awards * 3 Published works * 4 References * 5 See also RABBINATE AND SCHOLARSHIP Shlomo Yosef Zevin
Shlomo Yosef Zevin
was born in 1888 in Kazimirov (near Minsk
Minsk
), where his father, Aharon Mordechai, served as rabbi. The younger Zevin’s education was a combination of both “Litvishe ” (Lithuanian) and Hasidic influences; he studied first in the Yeshiva of Mir under Rabbi Eliyahu Baruch Kamai (where he was the study partner of Rabbi Yechiel Yaakov Weinberg ) and then in Bobruisk
Bobruisk
, under Rabbi Shemaryahu Noach Schneerson, then leader of the Kapust branch of the Chabad
Chabad
hasidic dynasty. Zevin was ordained by Rabbi Schneerson, Rabbi Yosef Rosen (the Rogatchover Gaon
Rogatchover Gaon
), and Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (author of Aruch Hashulchan
Aruch Hashulchan
)
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Yitzhak Baer
YITZHAK BAER (Hebrew : יצחק בער‎‎; 20 December 1888 – 22 January 1980) was German-Israeli historian and an expert in medieval Spanish Jewish history. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Awards * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References EARLY LIFE Baer was born in Halberstadt in the Prussian Province of Saxony
Province of Saxony
, Germany , in 1888. He studied philosophy , history and classical philology at Berlin University
Berlin University
, University of Strasbourg and University of Freiburg . He emigrated to Mandate Palestine , now Israel
Israel
, in 1930, and began lecturing in medieval Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. He was professor of medieval history at the University from 1932 to 1945. AWARDS * In 1945, Baer was awarded the Bialik Prize for Jewish thought. * In 1958, he was awarded the Israel
Israel
Prize , in Jewish studies. * In 1968, he received the Yakir Yerushalayim (Worthy Citizen of Jerusalem) award. BIBLIOGRAPHY * Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich Aragonien: wahrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts/ von Fritz Baer. Berlin: E. Ebering, 1913 * Das Protokollbuch der Landjudenschaft des Herzogtums Kleve: erster Teil: die Geschichte des Landjudenschaft Herzogtums Kleve/ von Fritz Baer. Berlin: C.A
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Ludwig Blum
LUDWIG BLUM (1891–1975) was a Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
-born Israeli painter. He emigrated to Israel
Israel
in 1923, as part of the Third Aliyah
Third Aliyah
, and became known as "the painter of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
". CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Career * 1.3 Death * 2 Selected paintings * 3 Secondary source * 4 References BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE Ludwig Blum
Ludwig Blum
was born in 1891 in Brno
Brno
, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
. He emigrated to Israel
Israel
in 1923, as part of the Third Aliyah
Third Aliyah
. He served in the First World War . He was privately educated in Vienna and later attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague
Prague
. CAREERUpon his arrival in Israel, and as a dedicated Zionist , he started paintings scenes of everyday life and landscapes in Israel
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Berl Locker
BERL LOCKER (Hebrew : ברל לוקר‎‎, born 27 April 1887, died 1 February 1972) was a Zionist activist and Israeli politician. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Kriwiec in Austria-Hungary , Locker was educated at a Jewish school. In 1902 he began contributing to the Der Yidisher Arbeiter newspaper, which he later became editor of. In 1904 he signed up to study law at Chernivtsi University
Chernivtsi University
, and in the same year established the Flowers of Zion student union. The following year he joined Poale Zion , and became a member of its central committee in Austria-Hungary. In 1916 he became secretary of the movement's The Hague office, and later served the same role in Stockholm
Stockholm
. He represented Poale Zion at conferences for socialist parties, and between 1918 and 1928 served as secretary of the Poale Zion World Union. From 1928 until 1931 he served as Poale Zion's secretary in the United States
United States
. In 1931 he moved to London
London
and became a member of the Jewish Agency board, on which he served until 1935. He also worked as a political advisor to the organisation. Between 1948 and 1956 he was chairman of the Agency's board of directors
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Benjamin Mazar
BENJAMIN MAZAR (Hebrew : בנימין מזר‎‎; born Binyamin Zeev Maisler, June 28, 1906 – September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli historian, recognized as the "dean" of biblical archaeologists . He shared the national passion for the archaeology of Israel that also attracts considerable international interest due to the region's biblical links. He is known for his excavations at the most significant biblical site in Israel: south and south west of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Jerusalem. In 1932 he conducted the first archaeological excavation under Jewish auspices in Israel at Beit She\'arim (the largest catacombs ever found in Israel) and in 1948 was the first archaeologist to receive a permit granted by the new State of Israel ( Tell Qasile , 1948). Mazar was trained as an Assyriologist and was an expert on biblical history, authoring more than 100 publications on the subject. He developed the field of historical geography of Israel. For decades he served as the chairman of the Israel Exploration Society and of the Archaeological Council of Israel (which he founded as the authority responsible for all archaeological excavations and surveys in Israel). Between 1951 and 1977, Mazar served as Professor of Biblical History and Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. In 1952 he became Rector of the University and later its president for eight years commencing in 1953
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Rachel Katznelson-Shazar
RACHEL KATZNELSON-SHAZAR (Hebrew : רחל כצנלסון-שזר‎‎), also known as Rachel Shazar, (born 24 October 1885, died 11 August 1975) was an active figure in the Zionist movement. Her husband was Zalman Shazar
Zalman Shazar
, the third President of the State of Israel
Israel
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Family * 4 References * 5 See also BIOGRAPHYBorn Rachel Katznelson in 1885 (or possibly 1888) in the city of Babruysk , then in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and now in Belarus
Belarus
, into a traditional Jewish family. She graduated from Russian high school with honors at the age of 18. This gave her the possibility of going to university, which was only open to a small percentage of the Jewish community. She was accepted to the St. Petersburg University to study literature and history. She also studied at the Academy for Jewish Studies in St. Petersburg, where she met her future husband, Zalman Shazar - then known as Shneur Zalman Rubashov - whom she married in 1920
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Zalman Shazar
ZALMAN SHAZAR (Hebrew : זלמן שז"ר‎; November 24, 1889 – October 5, 1974) was an Israeli politician, author and poet. Shazar served as the third President of Israel
President of Israel
from 1963 to 1973. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Journalistic and political career * 3 Presidency * 4 Published works * 5 Awards and commemoration * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYSHNEUR ZALMAN RUBASHOV (Belarusian : Шнэер За́льман Рубашо́ў; Russian : Шне́ер За́лмен Рубашо́в) was born to a Hasidic
Hasidic
family of the Chabad-Lubavitch denomination in Mir , near Minsk
Minsk
, in the Russian Empire