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Xmas
XMAS is a common abbreviation of the word Christmas
Christmas
. It is sometimes pronounced /ˈɛksməs/ , but Xmas, and variants such as Xtemass, originated as handwriting abbreviations for the typical pronunciation /ˈkrɪsməs/ . The "X" comes from the Greek letter Chi , which is the first letter of the Greek word Χριστός, which in English is " Christ
Christ
". The "-mas" part is from the Latin-derived Old English
Old English
word for Mass . There is a common belief that the word Xmas
Xmas
stems from a secular attempt to remove the religious tradition from Christmas
Christmas
by taking the "Christ" out of "Christmas", but its use dates back to the 16th century
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Franklin Graham
WILLIAM FRANKLIN GRAHAM III (born July 14, 1952) is an American Christian
Christian
evangelist and missionary . He is president and CEO of the Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Evangelistic Association (BGEA) and of Samaritan\'s Purse , an international Christian
Christian
relief organization. He has been a committed Christian
Christian
since 1974 and was ordained in 1982. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Work with Samaritan\'s Purse and Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Evangelistic Association * 3 Political activism and controversies * 4 Published works * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY YEARSWilliam Franklin Graham
Franklin Graham
III was born in Asheville, North Carolina , on July 14, 1952, to evangelist Billy Graham
Billy Graham
and Ruth Bell . He is the fourth of their five children
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN ( /ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ) or /ˈkrɪstjən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity , an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek word Christ ós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach . While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus
Jesus
has a unique significance. The term "Christian" is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all that is noble, and good, and Christ-like." According to a 2011 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians
Christians
around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910
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CNN
CABLE NEWS NETWORK (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Turner Broadcasting System , a division of Time Warner . CNN
CNN
was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN
CNN
was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage , and was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates , CNN
CNN
primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City
New York City
, and studios in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta
Atlanta
is only used for weekend programming. CNN
CNN
is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S
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Roland S. Martin
ROLAND SEBASTIAN MARTIN (born November 14, 1968) is an American journalist, syndicated columnist with Creators Syndicate
Creators Syndicate
, and author. He is a commentator for TV One and the host of News One Now , a one-hour weekday morning news show on the network. He was also a CNN
CNN
contributor, appearing on a variety of shows, including The Situation Room , Anderson Cooper
Anderson Cooper
's AC360
AC360
, and many others. In October 2008, he joined the Tom Joyner Morning Show as senior analyst. Books authored by Martin include Speak, Brother! A Black Man's View of America, Listening to the Spirit Within: 50 Perspectives on Faith and The First: President Barack Obama's Road to the White House as originally reported by Roland S. Martin
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Uppercase
LETTER CASE (or just CASE) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order . Letter case is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline
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Labarum
The LABARUM (Greek : λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the " Chi-Rho " symbol , a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word " Christ
Christ
" (Greek : ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great . Since the vexillum consisted of a flag suspended from the crossbar of a cross, it was ideally suited to symbolize the crucifixion of Christ
Christ
. Ancient sources draw an unambiguous distinction between the two terms "labarum" and "Chi-Rho", even though later usage sometimes regards the two as synonyms. The name labarum was applied both to the original standard used by Constantine the Great and to the many standards produced in imitation of it in the Late Antique world, and subsequently
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Chi Rho
The CHI RHO (/ˈkaɪ ˈroʊ/ ; also known as chrismon or sigla ) is one of the earliest forms of christogram , formed by superimposing the first two (capital) letters—chi and rho (ΧΡ)—of the Greek word ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christos ) in such a way that the vertical stroke of the rho intersects the center of the chi. The Chi- Rho
Rho
symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337) as part of a military standard (vexillum ). Constantine's standard was known as the Labarum
Labarum
. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho
Rho
were the Staurogram
Staurogram
( ) and the IX monogram ( ). In pre-Christian times, the Chi- Rho
Rho
symbol was also to mark a particularly valuable or relevant passage in the margin of a page, abbreviating chrēston (good). Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho
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Decima Flottiglia MAS
Italian naval commando frogman unit of the Fascist era DECIMA FLOTTIGLIA MAS Decima Flottiglia MAS
Decima Flottiglia MAS
arm badge during the Italian Social Republic (Nazi occupation of Italy). ACTIVE March 1941–September, 1943 COUNTRY Italy
Italy
BRANCH Regia Marina
Regia Marina
TYPE Naval commandos ROLE Frogmen , manned torpedoes , NICKNAME(S) Xª MAS MOTTO(S)Per il Re e la Bandiera
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Diocese Of Blackburn
Coordinates : 53°45′00″N 2°29′06″W / 53.750°N 2.485°W / 53.750; -2.485 DIOCESE OF BLACKBURN LOCATION ECCLESIASTICAL PROVINCE York ARCHDEACONRIES Blackburn, Lancaster STATISTICS PARISHES 211 CHURCHES 280 INFORMATION CATHEDRAL Blackburn Cathedral
Blackburn Cathedral
CURRENT LEADERSHIP BISHOP Julian Henderson ,
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Alan Chesters (Bishop)
ALAN DAVID CHESTERS CBE (born 26 August 1937) was the Bishop of Blackburn from 1989 to 2003. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Ministry * 3 Memberships * 4 References * 5 Sources EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONChesters is the son of Herbert and Catherine Chesters, of Huddersfield
Huddersfield
, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
. He was educated at Elland Grammar School , St Chad\'s College, Durham ( Bachelor of Arts {BA} 1959), St Catherine\'s Society, Oxford ( Bachelor of Arts {BA} 1961, Oxford Master of Arts {MA(Oxon)} 1965) and St Stephen\'s House, Oxford (1959–1962). He was ordained deacon in 1962, priest in 1963 and bishop in 1989. MINISTRYChesters served as assistant curate of St Anne\'s Wandsworth
Wandsworth
from 1962 to 1965
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Pagan
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages , paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Rho
RHO (/roʊ/ ; uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; Greek : ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
. In the system of Greek numerals , it has a value of 100. It is derived from Phoenician letter res . Its uppercase form is not to be confused with the Latin letter P , although both types use the same glyph : P. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Greek * 1.2 Other alphabets * 1.3 Mathematics
Mathematics
and science * 1.4 Chi Rho
Chi Rho
* 1.5 Rhodes Scholars * 2 Character encodings * 2.1 Greek Rho
Rho
* 2.2 Greek Rho
Rho
symbols * 2.3 Coptic Ro * 2.4 Functional Symbol * 2.5 Mathematical Rho
Rho
* 3 See also * 4 References USES The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
on a black figure vessel, with an R-shaped rho
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Christina Aguilera
CHRISTINA MARíA AGUILERA (born December 18, 1980) is an American singer, songwriter, actress and television personality. Born in Staten Island, New York and raised in Rochester and Wexford, Pennsylvania , she appeared on the television series Star Search
Star Search
and The Mickey Mouse Club in her early years. After recording "Reflection ", the theme for Disney 's 1998 film Mulan , Aguilera signed with RCA Records . She rose to prominence with her 1999 self-titled debut album that spawned the Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles " Genie in a Bottle ", "What a Girl Wants ", and " Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You) ". The following year, Aguilera released two studio albums; the Spanish-language album Mi Reflejo
Mi Reflejo
and the holiday album My Kind of Christmas
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Crystal
A CRYSTAL or CRYSTALLINE SOLID is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms , molecules , or ions ) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography . The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification . The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both "ice " and "rock crystal ", from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes , diamonds , and table salt
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