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Xmas
XMAS is a common abbreviation of the word Christmas
Christmas
. It is sometimes pronounced /ˈɛksməs/ , but Xmas, and variants such as Xtemass, originated as handwriting abbreviations for the typical pronunciation /ˈkrɪsməs/ . The "X" comes from the Greek letter Chi , which is the first letter of the Greek word Χριστός, which in English is " Christ
Christ
". The "-mas" part is from the Latin-derived Old English
Old English
word for Mass . There is a common belief that the word Xmas
Xmas
stems from a secular attempt to remove the religious tradition from Christmas
Christmas
by taking the "Christ" out of "Christmas", but its use dates back to the 16th century. CONTENTS * 1 Style guides and etiquette * 2 History * 2.1 Use in English * 2.2 Use of "X" for "Christ" * 2.2.1 Other uses of "X(t)" for "Chris(t)-" * 3 In popular culture * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links STYLE GUIDES AND ETIQUETTE"Xmas" is deprecated by some modern style guides , including those at the New York Times
New York Times
, The Times
The Times
, The Guardian
The Guardian
, and the BBC
BBC
. Millicent Fenwick
Millicent Fenwick
, in the 1948 Vogue's Book of Etiquette, states that "'Xmas' should never be used" in greeting cards
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Decima Flottiglia MAS
Per il Re e la Bandiera. (For the King and for the Flag) EQUIPMENT SLC "Maiale" torpedoes MTM "Barchini" motor assault boats ENGAGEMENTS Souda
Souda
Bay , Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, Alexandria
Alexandria
, Algiers
Algiers
, sank HMS Queen Elizabeth , HMS Valiant , HMS York , HMS Eridge and 20 merchant ships DECORATIONS Golden Medal of Military Valour INDIVIDUAL DECORATIONS: 29 Golden Medals of Military Valor 104 Silver Medals of Military Valor 33 Bronze Medals of Military Valor COMMANDERS Notable commanders Vittorio Moccagatta Ernesto Forza Junio Valerio Borghese
Junio Valerio Borghese
The DECIMA FLOTTIGLIA MAS (DECIMA FLOTTIGLIA Mezzi d'ASsalto, also known as LA DECIMA or Xª MAS) (Italian for "10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla
Flotilla
") was an Italian commando frogman unit of the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) created during the Fascist regime. The acronym MAS also refers to various light torpedo boats used by the Regia Marina
Regia Marina
during World War I
World War I
and World War II
World War II
. Decima MAS was active during the Battle of the Mediterranean
Battle of the Mediterranean
and took part in a number of daring raids on Allied shipping
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Xmas (film)
THE NIGHT BEFORE is a 2015 American Christmas
Christmas
comedy film written and directed by Jonathan Levine and co-written by Evan Goldberg , Kyle Hunter and Ariel Shaffir. The film stars Joseph Gordon-Levitt , Seth Rogen and Anthony Mackie
Anthony Mackie
as three childhood friends who annually reunite on Christmas
Christmas
Eve . Lizzy Caplan , Jillian Bell , Mindy Kaling and Michael Shannon also star. Principal photography began on August 11, 2014, in New York City
New York City
. Good Universe and Point Grey Pictures produced the film, which Columbia Pictures released on November 20, 2015. The film has a 66% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes and grossed $52 million. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 3.1 Development * 3.2 Casting * 3.3 Filming * 4 Release * 4.1 Box office * 4.2 Critical response * 5 References * 6 External links PLOTIn December 2001, Ethan Miller ( Joseph Gordon-Levitt ) loses both of his parents in a car accident. Since that time, Isaac Greenberg (Seth Rogen ) and Chris Roberts ( Anthony Mackie
Anthony Mackie
), Ethan's best friends, resolve to spend every Christmas
Christmas
Eve with Ethan
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Merry Xmas (film)
MERRY XMAS is an award-winning 2015 American short film directed by Boman Modine and produced by Cinco Dedos Peliculas LLC. The comedic film had its world premiere at the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival in New York City. In June, the short won the Best "Pilot" Award at the 2015 New Media Film Festival in Los Angeles. During Michael Moore
Michael Moore
's Traverse City Film Festival , the film screened before a work-in-progress cut of Jen Senko 's political documentary, The Brainwashing of My Dad , also produced by Matthew Modine and Adam Rackoff . On August 1, 2015, director Boman Modine and co-producer Adam Rackoff were invited to participate in the "After the Credits" interview series where they discussed the process of casting, shooting, and directing Merry Xmas. On December 11, 2015, it was announced that Merry Xmas closed a deal with Shorts International , the parent company of ShortsHD , to release the film on a variety of digital EST platforms including iTunes Movies, Google Play, Amazon Video, and Verizon. During Christmas week, Merry Xmas was featured on the iTunes Short Films page and landed in the top ten sales chart. Of the top ten films, Merry Xmas was the only live-action film and the only short not produced by Disney
Disney
or DreamWorks
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Ladies' Home Journal
LADIES\' HOME JOURNAL is an American magazine published by the Meredith Corporation
Meredith Corporation
. It was first published on February 16, 1883, and eventually became one of the leading women\'s magazines of the 20th century in the United States. From 1891 it was published in Philadelphia by the Curtis Publishing Company
Curtis Publishing Company
. In 1903, it was the first American magazine to reach one million subscribers. In the late 20th century, changing tastes and competition from television caused it to lose circulation. Sales of the magazine ensued as the publishing company struggled. On April 24, 2014, Meredith announced it would stop publishing the magazine as a monthly with the July issue, stating it was "transitioning Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
to a special interest publication". It is now available quarterly on newsstands only, though its website remains in operation. Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
was one of the Seven Sisters , as a group of women's service magazines were known. The name referred to seven prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast
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Abbreviation
An ABBREVIATION (from Latin
Latin
_brevis_, meaning _short_) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word _abbreviation_ can itself be represented by the abbreviation _abbr._, _abbrv._, or _abbrev._ In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions , crasis , acronyms , or initialisms , with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. :p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations (e.g. by the Council of Science Editors ). They are abbreviations that consist of the initial letters or parts of words
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Christmas
CHRISTMAS is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ , observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year , it is prepared for by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide , which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night ; in some traditions, Christmastide includes an Octave . The traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus , delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem , in accordance with messianic prophecies ; when Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who then disseminated the message furthermore. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world\'s nations , is celebrated religiously by the vast majority of Christians, as well as culturally by a number of non-Christian people, and is an integral part of the holiday season , while some Christian groups reject the celebration
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Greek Alphabet
The GREEK ALPHABET has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet , and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts . Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega . Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between upper-case and lower-case forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era . Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the 5th century BC and today. Modern and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
use different diacritics
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Chi (letter)
CHI (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; Greek : χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet , pronounced /kaɪ/ or /kiː/ in English. CONTENTS* 1 Greek * 1.1 Pronunciation * 1.1.1 Ancient Greek * 1.1.2 Koine Greek * 1.1.3 Modern Greek * 1.2 Transliteration * 1.3 Greek numeral * 1.4 Xi * 2 Cyrillic * 3 International Phonetic Alphabet * 4 Chiasmus * 5 Symbolism * 6 Character encodings * 6.1 Greek chi * 6.2 Coptic khi * 6.3 Latin
Latin
chi * 6.4 Mathematical chi * 7 Math and science * 8 See also * 9 References GREEK The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a cross-shaped chi PRONUNCIATIONAncient GreekIts value in Ancient Greek was an aspirated velar stop /kʰ/ (in the Western Greek alphabet : /ks/). Koine GreekIn Koine Greek and later dialects it became a fricative (/) along with Θ and Φ . Modern GreekIn Modern Greek , it has two distinct pronunciations: In front of high or front vowels (/e/ or /i/) it is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative , as in German ich or like the h in some pronunciations of the English words hew and human. In front of low or back vowels (/a/, /o/ or /u/) and consonants , it is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative (), as in German ach
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Christ
JESUS (/ˈdʒiːzəs/ _JEE-zuss_ ; Greek : Ἰησοῦς, translit. _Iesous_; Hebrew : ישוע‎, translit. _Yēšū́aʿ _‎; c. 4 BC – c. 30/33 AD), also referred to as JESUS OF NAZARETH or JESUS CHRIST, was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who became the central figure of Christianity . Christians believe him to be the Son of God and the awaited Messiah (Christ ) prophesied in the Old Testament . Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically , although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the biblical Jesus reflects the historical Jesus . Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was baptized by John the Baptist and subsequently began his own ministry , preaching his message orally and often being referred to as "rabbi ". He was arrested and tried by the Jewish religious authorities, and turned over to the Roman government, and was subsequently crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate , the Roman prefect . Jesus debated fellow Jews on how to best follow God, performed healings, taught in parables and gathered followers. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead , and the community they formed eventually became the Christian Church
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (_Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc_) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language , spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English . Old English
Old English
developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles
Angles
, Saxons , and Jutes
Jutes
. As the Anglo- Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain : Common Brittonic , a Celtic language , and Latin
Latin
, brought to Britain by Roman invasion
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Mass (liturgy)
MASS is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity . The term mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church , Anglican , as well as some Lutheran churches, Methodist , Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship , rather than the word Mass. For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity , including Eastern Catholic Churches , other terms such as Divine Liturgy , Holy Qurbana , and Badarak are typically used instead. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Mass in the Catholic Church * 2.1 Introductory rites * 2.2 Liturgy of the Word * 2.3 Liturgy of the Eucharist * 2.4 Communion rite * 2.5 Concluding rite * 3 Mass in the Western Rite Orthodox Churches * 3.1 Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory * 4 Mass in Anglicanism * 4.1 Structure of the rite * 4.2 Special
Special
Masses * 4.3 Ceremonial * 5 Mass in Lutheranism * 6 Calendrical usage * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ETYMOLOGY Further information: Ite, missa est § Meaning The English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa
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Common English Usage Misconceptions
This list comprises widespread modern beliefs about English language usage that are documented by a reliable source to be misconceptions. With no authoritative language academy , guidance on English language usage can come from many sources. This can create problems, as described by Reginald Close: Teachers and textbook writers often INVENT rules which their students and readers repeat and perpetuate. These rules are usually statements about English usage which the authors imagine to be, as a rule, true. But statements of this kind are extremely difficult to formulate both simply and accurately. They are rarely altogether true; often only partially true; sometimes contradicted by usage itself. Sometimes the contrary to them is also true. Perceived usage and grammar violations elicit visceral reactions in many people. For example, respondents to a 1986 BBC
BBC
poll were asked to submit "the three points of grammatical usage they most disliked". Participants stated that their noted points " 'made their blood boil', 'gave a pain to their ear', 'made them shudder', and 'appalled' them". But not all commonly held usage violations are errors; many are only perceived as such. CONTENTS * 1 Sources * 2 Grammar * 3 Typography * 4 Usage * 5 Semantics * 6 Notes * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 9.1 Dictionaries * 10 External links SOURCES This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Style Guide
A STYLE GUIDE (or MANUAL OF STYLE) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field. (It is often called a STYLE SHEET, though that term has other meanings.) A style guide establishes and enforces style to improve communication . To do that, it ensures consistency within a document and across multiple documents and enforces best practice in usage and in language composition , visual composition , orthography and typography . For academic and technical documents, a guide may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship , research ethics , and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and compliance (technical and regulatory ). Style
Style
guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and specific industries
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New York Times
_THE NEW YORK TIMES_ (sometimes abbreviated _NYT_ and _THE TIMES_) is an American daily newspaper , founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company . _The New York Times_ has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes , more than any other newspaper. The paper's print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind _ The Wall Street Journal _, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the United States. _The New York Times_ is ranked 18th in the world by circulation . Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed "THE GRAY LADY", _The New York Times_ has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record ". It has been owned by the Ochs-Sulzberger family since 1896; Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. , the publisher of the Times and the chairman of the New York Times Company, is the fourth generation of the family to helm the paper. _The New York Times_ international version, formerly the _International Herald Tribune_, is now called the _New York Times International Edition _. The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page
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The Times
_THE TIMES_ is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title _THE DAILY UNIVERSAL REGISTER_, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. _The Times_ and its sister paper _ The Sunday Times _ (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK , itself wholly owned by News Corp
News Corp
. _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ do not share editorial staff, were foun