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Xerocole
A xerocole (from Greek xēros /ˈzɪroʊs/, meaning 'dry', and Latin col(ere), meaning 'to inhabit'),[2][3][4] commonly referred to as a desert animal, is an animal adapted to live in the desert. The main challenges they must overcome are lack of water and excessive heat. To conserve water, they both avoid evaporation and concentrate excretions (i.e. urine and feces).[1] Some are so adept at conserving water or obtaining it from food that they do not need to drink at all
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Fennec Fox
The fennec fox or fennec ( Vulpes
Vulpes
zerda) is a small nocturnal fox found in the Sahara
Sahara
of North Africa, the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
and the Arabian desert. Its most distinctive feature is its unusually large ears, which also serve to dissipate heat. Its name comes from the Berber word (fanak), which means fox, and the species name zerda comes from the Greek word xeros which means dry, referring to the fox's habitat.[2] The fennec is the smallest species of canid. Its coat, ears, and kidney functions have adapted to high-temperature, low-water, desert environments. Also, its hearing is sensitive enough to hear prey moving underground. It mainly eats insects, small mammals, and birds. The fennec has a life span of up to 14 years in captivity. Its main predators are the African varieties of eagle owl
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Antidiuretic Hormone
NM_000490NM_009732RefSeq (protein)NP_000481NP_033862Location (UCSC) Chr 20: 3.08 – 3.08 Mb Chr 2: 130.58 – 130.58 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseVasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin,[5] is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP. It then travels down the axon of that cell, which terminates in the posterior pituitary, and is released from vesicles into the circulation in response to extracellular fluid hypertonicity (hyperosmolality). AVP has two primary functions. First, it increases the amount of solute-free water reabsorbed back into the circulation from the filtrate in the kidney tubules of the nephrons. Second, AVP constricts arterioles, which increases peripheral vascular resistance and raises arterial blood pressure.[6][7][8] A third function is possible
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Ibis
The ibises (collective plural ibis;[1] classical plurals ibides[2][3] and ibes[3]) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains.[4] "Ibis" derives from the Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word for this group of birds. It also occurs in the scientific name of the cattle egret, (Bubulcus ibis), mistakenly identified in 1757 as being the sacred ibis.[5]Contents1 Description 2 Species
Species
in taxonomic order 3 In culture 4 Species
Species
images 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit] Ibises all have long, down-curved bills, and usually feed as a group, probing mud for food items, usually crustaceans. They are monogamous and highly territorial while nesting and feeding.[4] Most nest in trees, often with spoonbills or herons
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Renal Physiology
Renal physiology
Renal physiology
(Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney. This encompasses all functions of the kidney, including maintenance of acid-base balance; regulation of fluid balance; regulation of sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes; clearance of toxins; absorption of glucose, amino acids, and other small molecules; regulation of blood pressure; production of various hormones, such as erythropoietin; and activation of vitamin D. Much of renal physiology is studied at the level of the nephron, the smallest functional unit of the kidney. Each nephron begins with a filtration component that filters the blood entering the kidney. This filtrate then flows along the length of the nephron, which is a tubular structure lined by a single layer of specialized cells and surrounded by capillaries
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Dromedary
The dromedary (/ˈdrɒmədɛri/ or /-ədri/), also called the Arabian camel ( Camelus
Camelus
dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back. The dromedary is the smallest of the three species of camel; adult males stand 1.8–2 m (5.9–6.6 ft) at the shoulder, while females are 1.7–1.9 m (5.6–6.2 ft) tall. Males typically weigh between 400 and 600 kg (880 and 1,320 lb), and females weigh between 300 and 540 kg (660 and 1,190 lb). The species' distinctive features include its long, curved neck, narrow chest, a single hump (compared with two on the Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
and wild Bactrian camel), and long hairs on the throat, shoulders and hump. The coat is generally a shade of brown. The hump, 20 cm (7.9 in) tall or more, is made of fat bound together by fibrous tissue. Dromedaries are mainly active during daylight hours
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Nitrogenous Waste
Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted. This includes nitrogen compounds, water, CO2, phosphates, sulfates, etc. Animals treat these compounds as excretes. Plants have chemical "machinery" which transforms some of them (primarily the nitrogen compounds) into useful substances, and it has been shown by Brian J. Ford that abscised leaves also carry wastes away from the parent plant. In this way, Ford[citation needed] argues that the shed leaf acts as an excretory (an organ carrying away excretory products). All the metabolic wastes are excreted in a form of water solutes through the excretory organs (nephridia, Malpighian tubules, kidneys), with the exception of CO2, which is excreted together with the water vapor throughout the lungs
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Nephrons
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule. The renal tubule extends from the capsule. The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a lumen. A healthy adult has 0.8 to 1.5 million nephrons in each kidney. Blood
Blood
is filtered as it passes through three layers: the endothelial cells of the capillary wall, its basement membrane, and between the foot processes of the podocytes of the lining of the capsule
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Cortical Nephron
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule. The renal tubule extends from the capsule. The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a lumen. A healthy adult has 0.8 to 1.5 million nephrons in each kidney. Blood
Blood
is filtered as it passes through three layers: the endothelial cells of the capillary wall, its basement membrane, and between the foot processes of the podocytes of the lining of the capsule
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Juxtamedullary Nephron
A juxtamedullary nephron is a type of nephron, found only in birds and mammals. Medullary refers to the renal medulla, while the juxta (Latin: near) refers to the relative position of the renal corpuscle, which in these nephrons are near the medulla (but still in cortex. junction) . In other words, a juxtamedullary nephron is one where the renal corpuscle is close to the medulla, and the proximal convoluted tubule and its associated loop of Henle occur at a deep position compared to most other nephrons. This type of nephron is relatively rare, and only comprise 20–30% of the nephrons in the human kidney. However, in most depictions of the nephron, it is a juxtamedullary nephron which is depicted. The greater gradient in the deep medulla make this type of nephron do more "work" than more shallow nephrons, and their vertical nature makes them easier to illustrate
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Glomerular Filtration Rate
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. Creatinine
Creatinine
clearance rate (CCr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Creatinine
Creatinine
clearance exceeds GFR due to creatinine secretion,[citation needed] which can be blocked by cimetidine. In alternative fashion, overestimation by older serum creatinine methods resulted in an underestimation of creatinine clearance, which provided a less biased estimate of GFR.[1] Both GFR and CCr may be accurately calculated by comparative measurements of substances in the blood and urine, or estimated by formulas using just a blood test result (eGFR and eCCr). The results of these tests are used to assess the excretory function of the kidneys
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Tubular Fluid
Tubular fluid is the fluid in the tubules of the kidney. It starts as a renal ultrafiltrate in the glomerulus, changes composition through the nephron, and ends up as urine leaving through the ureters. Composition table[edit] The composition of tubular fluid changes throughout the nephron, from the proximal tubule to the collecting duct and then as it exits the body, from the ureter.Concentration (mM) of substances in different segments of nephron and collecting duct systemSubstance proximal tubule loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct
Collecting duct
systemS1 S2 S3 descending limb thin ascending limb thick ascending limb connecting tubule initial collecting tubule cortical collecting ducts medullary collecting ductsNa+ 142[1]142[1]100[1] 70[1]40[1]References[edit]^ a b c d e Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders
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Loops Of Henle
In the kidney, the loop of Henle (English: /ˈhɛnli/) (or Henle's loop, Henle loop,[1] nephron loop[2] or its Latin
Latin
counterpart ansa nephroni) is the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. Named after its discoverer, the German anatomist Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney.[3] By means of a countercurrent multiplier system, which uses electrolyte pumps, the loop of Henle creates an area of high urea concentration deep in the medulla, near the papillary duct in the collecting duct system. Water present in the filtrate in the papillary duct flows through aquaporin channels out of the duct, moving passively down its concentration gradient
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Hyperolius
Hyperolius
Hyperolius
(commonly known as the African reed frogs or reed frogs) is a large genus of frogs in the Hyperoliidae
Hyperoliidae
family from Sub-Saharan Africa.[1] Species[edit] Different sources may delimit this genus differently, and as new species are still being described, different number of species can be found
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Stork
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. They belong to the family called Ciconiidae, and make up the order Ciconiiformes. Ciconiiformes
Ciconiiformes
previously included a number of other families, such as herons and ibises, but those families have been moved to other orders.[2] Storks dwell in many regions and tend to live in drier habitats than the closely related herons, spoonbills and ibises; they also lack the powder down that those groups use to clean off fish slime. Bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Many species are migratory. Most storks eat frogs, fish, insects, earthworms, small birds and small mammals
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Granule (cell Biology)
In cell biology, a granule is a small particle.[1] It can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy. The term is most often used to describe a secretory vesicle.Contents1 Leukocytes 2 Platelets 3 Germline
Germline
granules 4 Insulin
Insulin
granules4.1 Insulin
Insulin
granule maturation process5 Plant cells 6 Starch 7 See also 8 ReferencesLeukocytes[edit] A group of leukocytes called granulocytes contain granules and play an important role in the immune system. The granules of certain cells, such as natural killer cells, contain components which can lead to the lysis of neighboring cells. The granules of leukocytes are classified as azurophilic granules or specific granules
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