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XML
In computing, Extensible Markup Language
Language
(XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML
XML
1.0 Specification[2] and several other related specifications[3]—all of them free open standards—define XML.[4] The design goals of XML
XML
emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet.[5] It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode
Unicode
for different human languages
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Language
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Computing
Computing
Computing
is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; designing a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media
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Semantics
Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant")[1][2] is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation. In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal, a French philologist.[3] It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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Communication Protocol
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.[1] Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.[2] To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Apple Computer
Coordinates: 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118Apple Inc.The Apple Campus
Apple Campus
in Cupertino, CaliforniaFormerly calledApple Computer Company (1976–1977) Apple Computer, Inc. (1977–2007)TypePublicTraded asNASDAQ: AAPL NASDAQ-100
NASDAQ-100
component DJIA component S&P 100 component S&P 500 componentISIN US0378331005IndustryComputer hardware Computer software Consumer electronics Digital distribution Semiconductors Fabless silicon design Corporate venture capitalFounded April 1, 1976; 42 years ago (1976-04-01)FoundersSteve Jobs Steve Wozniak Ronald WayneHeadquarters Apple Park, 1 Apple Park
Apple Park
Way, Cupertino, California, U.S.Number of locations499 retail stores (2017)Area servedWorldwideKey people Arthur D
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International Standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).Contents1 Purpose 2 History2.1 Standardization 2.2 International organizations3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPurpose[edit] International standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions
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Uniform Type Identifier
A Uniform Type Identifier
Uniform Type Identifier
(UTI) is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
to uniquely identify a given class or type of item. Apple provides built-in UTIs to identify common system objects – document or image file types, folders and application bundles, streaming data, clipping data, movie data – and allows third party developers to add their own UTIs for application-specific or proprietary uses. Support for UTIs was added in the Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.4 operating system, integrated into the Spotlight desktop search technology, which uses UTIs to categorize documents. One of the primary design goals of UTIs was to eliminate the ambiguities and problems associated with inferring a file's content from its MIME type, filename extension, or type or creator code.[1] UTIs use a reverse-DNS naming structure
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Electronic Document
An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output. Originally, any computer data were considered as something internal — the final data output was always on paper. However, the development of computer networks has made it so that in most cases it is much more convenient to distribute electronic documents than printed ones
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SOAP
Soap
Soap
is both a salt of a fatty acid[1] and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.Contents1 Kinds of soaps1.1 Non-toilet soaps1.1.1 Production of metallic soaps1.2 Toilet soaps1.2.1 Production of toilet soaps 1.2.2 History1.2.2.1 Ancient Middle East 1.2.2.2 Roman Empire 1.2.2.3 Ancient China 1.2.2.4 Islamic Middle East 1.2.2.5 Medieval Europe 1.2.2.6 15th–19th centuries 1.2.2.7 Liquid soap1.2.3 Soap-making for hobbyists2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksKinds of soaps Since they are salt of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl)
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Application Programming Interface
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables or remote calls. POSIX, Windows API and ASPI are examples of different forms of APIs
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Data Structure
In computer science, a data structure is a particular way of organizing and storing data in a computer so that it can be accessed and modified efficiently.[1][2][3] More precisely, a data structure is a collection of data values, the relationships among them, and the functions or operations that can be applied to the data.[4]Contents1 Usage 2 Implementation 3 Examples 4 Language support 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External linksUsage[edit] Data structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which specify the operations that can be performed on a data structure and the computational complexity of those operations. In comparison, a data structure is a concrete implementation of the space provided by an ADT.[citation needed] Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks
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Human-readable Medium
A human-readable medium or human-readable format is a representation of data or information that can be naturally read by humans. In computing, human-readable data is often encoded as ASCII
ASCII
or Unicode text, rather than presented in a binary representation
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Internet Media Type
A media type (also MIME type and content type)[1] is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments;[2] hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP[3] and document file formats such as HTML,[4] for similar purpose.Contents1 Naming1.1 Common examples 1.2 Registration trees1.2.1 Standards tree 1.2.2 Vendor tree 1.2.3 Personal or Vanity tree 1.2.4 Unregistered x
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Media Type
A media type (also MIME type and content type)[1] is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments;[2] hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP[3] and document file formats such as HTML,[4] for similar purpose.Contents1 Naming1.1 Common examples 1.2 Registration trees1.2.1 Standards tree 1.2.2 Vendor tree 1.2.3 Personal or Vanity tree 1.2.4 Unregistered x
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