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XML
In computing , EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable . The W3C
W3C
's XML
XML
1.0 Specification and several other related specifications —all of them free open standards —define XML. The design goals of XML
XML
emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet
Internet
. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode
Unicode
for different human languages . Although the design of XML
XML
focuses on documents, the language is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures such as those used in web services
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Electronic Document
An ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output. Originally, any computer data were considered as something internal — the final data output was always on paper. However, the development of computer networks has made it so that in most cases it is much more convenient to distribute electronic documents than printed ones. And the improvements in electronic display technologies mean that in most cases it is possible to view documents on screen instead of printing them (thus saving paper and the space required to store the printed copies)
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Computing
COMPUTING is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm — e.g. through computers . Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering , software engineering , computer science , information systems , and information technology
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Apple Computer
Coordinates : 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118 Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
The Apple Campus
Apple Campus
at 1 Infinite Loop , Cupertino, California FORMERLY CALLED * Apple Computer Company (1976–1977) * Apple Computer, Inc
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Communication Protocol
In telecommunications , a COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity . The protocol defines the rules syntax , semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods . Protocols may be implemented by hardware , software , or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented . Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Semantics
SEMANTICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning , in language , programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics . It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words , phrases , signs , and symbols —and what they stand for, their denotation . In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology . The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal , a French philologist. It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation . This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics
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Microsoft
MICROSOFT CORPORATION (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/ , abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington . It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software , consumer electronics , personal computers , and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
line of operating systems , the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office suite , and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers . Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup. As of 2016, it is the world\'s largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world\'s most valuable companies . The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software"
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International Standard
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS are standards developed by international standards organizations . International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide. The most prominent organization is the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 History * 2.1 Standardization * 2.2 International organizations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PURPOSEInternational standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions
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Language
LANGUAGE is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so; and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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List Of XML Markup Languages
This is a list of XML
XML
MARKUP LANGUAGES . Contents: * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z A * AdsML Markup language
Markup language
used for interchange of data between advertising systems. * Agricultural Ontology Service * AIML Markup language
Markup language
used for creating artificial intelligence chatterbots. * AnIML Markup language
Markup language
used for data created by scientific analytical instruments
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Uniform Type Identifier
A UNIFORM TYPE IDENTIFIER (UTI) is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc. to uniquely identify a given class or type of item. Apple provides built-in UTIs to identify common system objects – document or image file types, folders and application bundles, streaming data, clipping data, movie data – and allows third party developers to add their own UTIs for application-specific or proprietary uses. Support for UTIs was added in the Mac OS X 10.4 operating system, integrated into the Spotlight desktop search technology, which uses UTIs to categorize documents. One of the primary design goals of UTIs was to eliminate the ambiguities and problems associated with inferring a file's content from its MIME type , filename extension , or type or creator code . UTIs use a reverse-DNS naming structure
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Media Type
A MEDIA TYPE (also MIME TYPE and CONTENT TYPE) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet
Internet
. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP
HTTP
and document file formats such as HTML
HTML
, for similar purpose
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Soap
In chemistry , a SOAP is a salt of a fatty acid . Household uses for soaps include washing , bathing , and other types of housekeeping , where soaps act as surfactants , emulsifying oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of some lubricants . Metal soaps are also included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier. Soaps for cleaning are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strong base , such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in an aqueous solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides ; three molecules of fatty acids attach to a single molecule of glycerol . The alkaline solution, which is often called lye (although the term "lye soap" refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium hydroxide ), induces saponification
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Internet Media Type
A MEDIA TYPE (also MIME TYPE and CONTENT TYPE) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet
Internet
. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP
HTTP
and document file formats such as HTML
HTML
, for similar purpose
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Human-readable Medium
A HUMAN-READABLE MEDIUM or HUMAN-READABLE FORMAT is a representation of data or information that can be naturally read by humans . In computing , human-readable data is often encoded as ASCII
ASCII
or Unicode
Unicode
text, rather than presented in a binary representation. Virtually all data can be parsed by a suitably equipped and programmed computer or machine; reasons for choosing binary formats over text formats usually center on issues of storage space, as a binary representation usually takes up fewer bytes of storage, and efficiency of access (input and output) without parsing or conversion
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Data Structure
In computer science , a DATA STRUCTURE is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Implementation * 3 Examples * 4 Language support * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 Further reading * 9 External links USAGEData structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which specify the operations that can be performed on a data structure and the computational complexity of those operations. In comparison, a data structure is a concrete implementation of the specification provided by an ADT. Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases commonly use B-tree indexes for data retrieval, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers
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