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X14XE
The Family 1
Family 1
is a straight-4 piston engine that was developed by Opel, a subsidiary of General Motors
General Motors
to replace the Opel
Opel
CIH engines for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall. Originally produced at the Aspern engine plant, production was moved to the Szentgotthard engine plant in Hungary[2] with the introduction of the DOHC
DOHC
version. GM do Brasil at São José dos Campos,[3] GMDAT
GMDAT
at Bupyeong and GM North America at Toluca
Toluca
also build these engines. The Family 1
Family 1
engines are inline-4 cylinder engines with belt-driven single or double overhead camshafts in an aluminum cylinder head with a cast iron engine block. GM do Brasil
GM do Brasil
versions were also capable of running on ethanol
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Family 1
Family 1
Family 1
is a group of Greek Gospel
Gospel
manuscripts, varying in date from the 12th to the 15th century. The group takes its name from the minuscule codex 1, now in the Basel University Library. "Family 1" is also known as "the Lake Group", symbolized as f1. Hermann von Soden calls the group Ih. Aland lists it as Category III in the Gospels
Gospels
and Category V elsewhere.[1] Family 1
Family 1
was discovered in 1902, when Kirsopp Lake
Kirsopp Lake
(1872–1946) published Codex 1 of the Gospels
Gospels
and its Allies (118, 131, 209), and established the existence of a new textual family
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Stroke (engine)
In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings:A phase of the engine's cycle (eg compression stroke, exhaust stroke), during which the piston travels from top to bottom or vice-versa. The type of power cycle used by a piston engine (eg two-stroke engine, four-stroke engine). "Stroke length", the distance travelled by the piston in each cycle. The stroke length- along with bore diameter- determines the engine's displacement.Contents1 Phases in the power cycle1.1 Induction/ Intake
Intake
stroke 1.2 Compression stroke 1.3 Combustion/Power/Expansion stroke 1.4 Exhaust stroke2 Types of power cycles2.1 Two-stroke engine 2.2 Four-strokes engine3 Stroke lengthPhases in the power cycle[edit]The phases/strokes of a four-stroke engine. 1: intake 2: compression 3: power 4: exhaustCommonly-used engine phases/strokes (ie those used in a four-stroke engine) are described below
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Bupyeong District
Bupyeong District
Bupyeong District
(Bupyeong-gu) is one of the 10 administrative divisions (eight municipal districts and two counties) that comprise Incheon, South Korea
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Toluca
MexicoRegion TolucaMetro area Greater TolucaMunicipal Status December 13, 1812[1]Municipal Seat Toluca
Toluca
de LerdoGovernment • Type Ayuntamiento • Municipal President Fernando Zamora MoralesArea • Municipality 452.37 km2 (174.66 sq mi) • Water 7.30 km2 (2.82 sq mi)Elevation (of seat) 2,660 m (8,730 ft)Population (2010 Census)  • Municipality 819,561Time zone Central (US Central) (UTC-6) • S
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Inline-four Engine
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars.[1] However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines
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Aluminum
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Engine Block
The cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a reciprocating engine and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase). The term engine block is often used synonymously with "cylinder block" (although technically distinctions can be made between en bloc cylinders as a discrete unit versus engine block designs with yet more integration that comprise the crankcase as well). In the basic terms of machine elements, the various main parts of an engine (such as cylinder(s), cylinder head(s), coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages, and crankcase) are conceptually distinct, and these items can all be made as discrete pieces that are bolted together
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SOHC
Overhead camshaft,[1][2] commonly abbreviated to OHC,[1][2] is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads ("above" the pistons and combustion chambers) and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods.Contents1 Overview 2 Single overhead camshaft2.1 Alternative SOHC layouts3 Dual overhead camshaft 4 Triple overhead camshaft 5 Camshaft
Camshaft
drive systems5.1 Timing belt 5.2 Timing chain 5.3 Bevel shaft 5.4 Gear train 5.5 Cranks and rods6 Variable valve timing 7 History7.1
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Petrol
Gasoline
Gasoline
(American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline
Gasoline
is produced in several grades of octane rating
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Engine Displacement
Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (l), or cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber.Contents1 Definition 2 Governmental regulations 3 Automotive model names 4 See also 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders
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Bore (engine)
The bore or cylinder bore is a part of a piston engine. The bore also represents the size, in terms of diameter, of the cylinder in which a piston travels. The value of a cylinders bore, and stroke, is used to establish the displacement of an engine.[1] The term "bore" can also be applied to the bore of a locomotive cylinder or steam engine pistons. References[edit]^ Schwaller, Anthony (1999). Motor Automotive Technology
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Valvetrain
A valve train or valvetrain is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine,[1] in which a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly
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São José Dos Campos
São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos
(Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w̃ ʒuˈzɛ dus ˈkɐ̃pus], meaning Saint Joseph of the Fields) is a major city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. One of the leading industrial and research centers with emphasis in aerospace sciences in Latin America,[2] the city is located in the Paraíba Valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo
São Paulo
(80 km (50 mi) from the city) and Rio de Janeiro (320 km (200 mi))
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Single Overhead Cam
Overhead camshaft,[1][2] commonly abbreviated to OHC,[1][2] is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads ("above" the pistons and combustion chambers) and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods.Contents1 Overview 2 Single overhead camshaft2.1 Alternative SOHC layouts3 Dual overhead camshaft 4 Triple overhead camshaft 5 Camshaft
Camshaft
drive systems5.1 Timing belt 5.2 Timing chain 5.3 Bevel shaft 5.4 Gear train 5.5 Cranks and rods6 Variable valve timing 7 History7.1
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Compression Ratio
The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity. It is a fundamental specification for many common combustion engines. In a piston engine, it is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder and combustion chamber when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, and the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at the top of its stroke.[1] For example, a cylinder and its combustion chamber with the piston at the bottom of its stroke may contain 1000 cc of air (900 cc in the cylinder plus 100 cc in the combustion chamber)
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