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Women's Liberation Movement
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement. The movement's priorities vary among nations and communities, and range from opposition to female genital mutilation in one country, to opposition to the glass ceiling in another
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We Can Do It!
"We Can Do It!" is an American wartime propaganda poster produced by J. Howard Miller
J. Howard Miller
in 1943 for Westinghouse Electric as an inspirational image to boost worker morale. The poster was very little seen during World War II. It was rediscovered in the early 1980s and widely reproduced in many forms, often called "We Can Do It!" but also called "Rosie the Riveter" after the iconic figure of a strong female war production worker. The "We Can Do It!" image was used to promote feminism and other political issues beginning in the 1980s.[1] The image made the cover of the Smithsonian magazine in 1994 and was fashioned into a US first-class mail stamp in 1999. It was incorporated in 2008 into campaign materials for several American politicians, and was reworked by an artist in 2010 to celebrate the first woman becoming prime minister of Australia
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Difference Feminism
Taking for granted an equal moral status as persons, difference feminism asserts that there are differences between men and women but that no value judgment can be placed upon them.[1] The term "difference feminism" developed during the "equality-versus-difference debate" in American feminism in the 1980s and 1990s,[2] but subsequently fell out of favor and use. In the 1990s feminists addressed the binary logic of "difference" versus "equality" and moved on from it, notably with postmodern and/or deconstructionist approaches that either dismantled or did not depend on that dichotomy.[2][3][4] Difference feminism did not require a commitment to essentialism
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Fourth-wave Feminism
Fourth-wave feminism
Fourth-wave feminism
is the resurgence of interest in feminism that began around 2012 and is associated with the use of social media.[1] According to feminist scholar Prudence Chamberlain, the focus of the fourth wave is justice for women and opposition to sexual harassment and violence against women. Its essence, she writes, is "incredulity that certain attitudes can still exist".[2] Fourth-wave feminism
Fourth-wave feminism
is "defined by technology", according to Kira Cochrane, and is characterized particularly by the use of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Tumblr, and blogs such as Feministing
Feministing
to challenge misogyny and further gender equality.[1][3][4][5] Issues that fourth-wave feminists focus on include street and workplace harassment, campus sexual assault and rape culture. Scandals involving the harassment, abuse, and murder of women and girls have galvanized the movement
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Feminist Movements And Ideologies
A variety of movements of feminist ideology have developed over the years. They vary in goals, strategies, and affiliations
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Analytical Feminism
Analytical feminism is a line of philosophy that applies analytic concepts and methods to feminist issues and applies feminist concepts and insights to issues that have traditionally been of interest to analytic philosophers. Like all feminists, analytical feminists insist on recognizing and contesting sexism and androcentrism.[1]Contents1 History 2 Philosophical approach2.1 Doctrines 2.2 Bridge building 2.3 Reconstructing philosophy3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The term “analytical feminism” dates back to the early 1990s when the Society for Analytical Feminism
Feminism
was opened in at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.[2] It is used as an opportunity to discuss and examine issues concerning analytical feminism, in part to contrast the more prevalent influences of postmodernism and post-structuralism, and also to demonstrate that analytic philosophy is neither inherently or irredeemably male-biased
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Anarcha-feminism
Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy and traditional gender rules as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralized free association. Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class conflict and the anarchist struggle against the state and capitalism. In essence, the philosophy sees anarchist struggle as a necessary component of feminist struggle and vice versa. L. Susan Brown claims that "as anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is inherently feminist".[1] Contrary to popular belief and contemporary association with radical feminism, anarcha-feminism is not an inherently militant outlook. It is described to be an anti-authoritarian, anti-capitalist, anti-oppressive philosophy, with the goal of creating an "equal ground" between all genders
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Atheist Feminism
Atheist feminism
Atheist feminism
is a branch of feminism that advocates atheism. Atheist feminists also oppose religion as a main source of female oppression and inequality, believing that the majority of the religions are sexist and oppressive to women.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Ernestine Rose 1.2 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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Cultural Feminism
Cultural feminism is a term used to annotate the view that there is a "female nature" or "female essence" or related attempts to revalidate attributes ascribed to femaleness.[1] It is also used to describe theories that commend innate differences between women and men.[2]Contents1 Origins of the term 2 Cultural feminist ideas 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOrigins of the term[edit] Unlike radical feminism or socialist feminism, cultural feminism was not an ideology widely claimed by proponents, but was more commonly a pejorative label ascribed by its opponents
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Cyberfeminism
Cyberfeminism is used to describe the philosophies of a contemporary feminist community whose interests are cyberspace, the Internet
Internet
and technology.[1][2] The term was coined in the early 1990s to describe the work of feminists interested in theorizing, critiquing and exploiting the Internet, cyberspace and new-media technologies in general.[2] Cyberfeminism is considered a predecessor to networked feminism. Cyberfeminism also has a relationship to the field of feminist science and technology studies.[3] The dominant cyberfeminist perspective takes a utopian view of cyberspace and the Internet
Internet
as a means of freedom from social constructs such as gender and sex difference
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Ecofeminism
Ecofeminism
Ecofeminism
is a term that links feminism with ecology. Its advocates say that paternalistic/capitalistic society has led to a harmful split between nature and culture. Early ecofeminists propagated that the split can only be healed by the feminine instinct for nurture and holistic knowledge of nature's processes. Modern ecofeminism, or feminist eco-criticism, eschews such essentialism and instead focuses more on intersectional questions, such as how the nature-culture split enables the oppression of female and nonhuman bodies. It is also an activist and academic movement that sees critical connections between the exploitation of nature and the domination over women both caused by men. Ecofeminism
Ecofeminism
also describes an art movement focusing primarily on land art by women
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First-wave Feminism
First-wave feminism
First-wave feminism
was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world. It focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining the right to vote. The term first-wave was coined in March 1968 by Martha Lear writing in The New York Times Magazine, who at the same time also used the term "second-wave feminism".[1][2] At that time, the women's movement was focused on de facto (unofficial) inequalities, which it wished to distinguish from the objectives of the earlier feminists.Contents1 Origins1.1 Wollstonecraft 1.2 Early American efforts2 Australia 3 Denmark 4 New Zealand 5 Netherlands 6 Persia 7 Sweden 8 United Kingdom 9 United States 10 Timeline 11 See also 12 ReferencesOrigins[edit]This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page
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Vegetarian Ecofeminism
Vegetarian ecofeminism is an activist and academic movement[1] which states that all types of oppression are linked and must be eradicated, with a focus on including the domination of humans over nonhuman animals.[2] Through the feminist concept known as intersectionality, it is recognized that sexism, racism, classism, and other forms of inter human oppression are all connected
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Equality Feminism
Equality feminism is a subset of the overall feminism movement that focuses on the basic similarities between men and women, and whose ultimate goal is the equality of the sexes in all domains. This includes economic and political equality, equal access within the workplace, freedom from oppressive gender stereotyping, and an androgynous worldview.[1][not in citation given (See discussion.)] Feminist theory
Feminist theory
seeks to promote the legal status of women as equal and undifferentiated from that of men. While equality feminists largely agree that men and women have basic biological differences in anatomy and frame, they argue that on a psychological level, the use of ration or reason is androgynous
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Fat Feminism
Fat feminism or body-positive feminism is a form of feminism that merges with the fat acceptance movement and specifically addresses how misogyny and sexism intersect with sizeism and anti-fat bias. Body-positive feminists promote acceptance for women of all sizes. Fat feminism originated during second-wave feminism. Now fat feminists main focus is eliminating perceived bias against fat people
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French Feminist Theory
Feminism
Feminism
in France
France
refers to the history of feminist thought and movements in France
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