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Wine
Wine
Wine
(from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes, generally Vitis
Vitis
vinifera, fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.[1] Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Cherry
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
avium) and the sour cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
cerasus). The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom"
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Enzyme
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
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Acid
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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Bacchanalia
The Bacchanalia
Bacchanalia
were Roman festivals
Roman festivals
of Bacchus, based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia. They seem to have been popular, and well-organised, throughout the central and southern Italian peninsula. They were almost certainly associated with Rome's native cult of Liber, and probably arrived in Rome itself around 200 BC but like all mystery religions of the ancient world, very little is known of their rites. Livy, writing some 200 years after the event, offers a scandalised, extremely colourful account of the Bacchanalia. Modern scholarship takes a skeptical approach to his allegations of frenzied rites, sexually violent initiations of both sexes, all ages and all social classes, and the cult as a murderous instrument of conspiracy against the state
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Plum
See text.A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus
Prunus
of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit). Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom"
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Balkans
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe
Europe
with various and disputed definitions.[1][2] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
is bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
on the northwest, the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
on the southwest, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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Nutrient
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Ancient Egyptians
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Ancient Greek Religion
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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