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Windsor Castle
First Barons' War, English Civil WarScheduled monumentOfficial name Windsor CastleReference no. 1006996[1]Listed Building – Grade IOfficial name Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
Including All The Buildings Within The WallsDesignated 2 October 1975Reference no. 1117776[2]National Register of Historic Parks and GardensOfficial name Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
and Home ParkDesignated 31 August 1999Reference no. 1001434[3]Part of Royal Estate, Windsor Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family
British royal family
and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England
Norman invasion of England
by William the Conqueror
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Epitrochoid
An epitrochoid (/ɛpɪˈtrɒkɔɪd/ or /ɛpɪˈtroʊkɔɪd/) is a roulette traced by a point attached to a circle of radius r rolling around the outside of a fixed circle of radius R, where the point is at a distance d from the center of the exterior circle. The parametric equations for an epitrochoid are x ( θ ) = ( R + r ) cos ⁡ θ − d cos ⁡ ( R + r r θ ) , displaystyle x(theta )=(R+r)cos theta -dcos left( R+r over r theta right),, y ( θ ) = ( R + r ) sin ⁡ θ − d sin ⁡
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Elizabeth I Of England
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603)[1] was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana
Gloriana
or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII
Henry VIII
was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey
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Restoration (England)
The Restoration of the English monarchy
English monarchy
took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Baroque
The Baroque
Baroque
(US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style
Renaissance style
and preceded the Neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant
Protestant
architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany
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Rococo Architecture
Rococo (/rəˈkoʊkoʊ/ or /roʊkəˈkoʊ/), less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.[1] It pushed to the extreme the principles of illusion and theatricality, an effect achieved by dense ornament, asymmetry, fluid curves, and the use of white and pastel colors combined with gilding, drawing the eye in all directions. The ornament dominated the architectural space.[1] The Rococo style of architecture and decoration began in France in the first part of the 18th century in the reign of Louis XV as a reaction against the more formal and geometric Style Louis XIV. It was known as the style rocaille, or rocaille style. [2] It quickly spread to other parts of Europe, particularly Bavaria, Austria, Germany and Russia
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Norman Dynasty
Illegitimate lines:House of Devereux, Viscounts Hereford House of FitzRobert, Earls of Gloucester House of Dunstanville, Earls of Cornwall^ The House of Normandy
Normandy
became extinct before the age of heraldry.The House of Normandy
Normandy
is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy
Dukes of Normandy
and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
and lasted until the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
came to power in 1154. It included the Viking Rollo
Rollo
and his descendants, and William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and his heirs down through 1135
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Gothic Architecture
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
is an architectural style that flourished in Europe
Europe
during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
and was succeeded by Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture. Originating in 12th century France
France
and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault (which evolved from the joint vaulting of Romanesque architecture) and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe
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Luftwaffe
The Luftwaffe[N 2] (German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] ( listen)) was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new doctrines and aircraft
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Georgian Architecture
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture
is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture
Colonial Revival architecture
and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture
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William The Conqueror
William I[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and sometimes William the Bastard,[2][b] was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke
Duke
of Normandy
Normandy
(as William II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy
Normandy
was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke
Duke
of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva
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Norman Invasion Of England
The Norman conquest of England
England
(in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson. The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford, but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Stamford Bridge
on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England
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British Royal Family
The British royal family
British royal family
comprises the monarch of the United Kingdom and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family
British royal family
and, apart from Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
herself, different lists include different people. Those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness
Royal Highness
(HRH), and any styled His or Her Majesty (HM), are normally considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revolution 11 December 1688 
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Victorian Architecture
Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of Middle Eastern and Asian influences. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch
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