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Windows 98
Windows 98
Windows 98
(codenamed Memphis[3] while in development) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft
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General Availability
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Desktop Metaphor
In computing, the desktop metaphor is an interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by graphical user interfaces to help users interact more easily with the computer.[1] The desktop metaphor treats the computer monitor as if it is the user's desktop, upon which objects such as documents and folders of documents can be placed. A document can be opened into a window, which represents a paper copy of the document placed on the desktop. Small applications called desk accessories are also available, such as a desk calculator or notepad, etc. The desktop metaphor itself has been extended and stretched with various implementations of desktop environments, since access to features and usability of the computer are usually more important than maintaining the 'purity' of the metaphor. Hence we find trash cans on the desktop, as well as disks and network volumes (which can be thought of as filing cabinets—not something normally found on a desktop)
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FrontPage Express
Microsoft FrontPage (full name Microsoft Office FrontPage) is a discontinued WYSIWYG HTML editor and Web site administration tool from Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. It was branded as part of the Microsoft Office suite from 1997 to 2003. Microsoft FrontPage has since been replaced by Microsoft Expression Web and SharePoint Designer, which were first released in December 2006 alongside Microsoft Office 2007, but these two products were also discontinued in favor of a web-based version of SharePoint Designer, as those three HTML editors were desktop applications.Contents1 History 2 Features 3 Versions 4 Server Extensions 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] FrontPage was initially created by the Cambridge, Massachusetts company Vermeer Technologies, Incorporated,[2] evidence of which can be easily spotted in file names and directories prefixed _vti_ in Web sites created using FrontPage
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Booting
In computing, booting (or booting up) is the initialization of a computerized system. The system can be a computer or a computer appliance. The booting process can be "hard", e.g., after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on (in order to diagnose particular hardware errors), or "soft", when those power-on self-tests (POST) can be avoided. On some systems a soft boot may optionally clear RAM
RAM
to zero. Both hard and soft booting can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by software command. Booting
Booting
is complete when the normal, operative, runtime environment is attained. A boot loader is a computer program that loads an operating system or some other system software for the computer after completion of the power-on self-tests; it is the loader for the operating system itself. Within the hard reboot process, it runs after completion of the self-tests, then loads and runs the software
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32-bit Application
In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits (4 octets) wide. Also, 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.Contents1 Range for storing integers 2 Technical history 3 Architectures 4 Applications 5 Images 6 File formats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksRange for storing integers[edit] A 32-bit register can store 232 different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on the integer representation used
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16-bit
In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits (2 octets) wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1); the unsigned range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB (65,536 bytes) of byte-addressable memory
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Release To Manufacturing
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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Graphical User Interface
The graphical user interface (GUI /ɡuːiː/), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs),[1][2][3] which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard. The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.[4] Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3
MP3
players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial controls
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NetShow
NetShow was Microsoft's original framework for Internet network broadcasting, intended to compete with RealNetworks RealMedia & Vivo (acquired in 1998 by RealNetworks).[1] It is now renamed and marketed under the Windows Media umbrella. NetShow 1.0 came out in 1996.[2] A newer version, 2.0, was included in Windows NT 4.0 SP3 in 1997.[3] Version 3.0 came out mid-1998.[2] The whole product line was renamed Windows Media in October, 1999, four months before Windows 2000 appeared.[2] The NetShow name is still carried on in the user-agent string in current versions of Windows Media Player, which reports as "NSPlayer". Components[edit]NetShow Player 2.0 running in Windows XPNetShow Player (version 2.0 was included with Internet Explorer 4 March 10 1997,[4] now incorporated into Windows Media Player) NetShow Services (renamed Windows Media Services) It was eventually incorporated into the media server functionality of Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)
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Compiled
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language). Compilers
Compilers
are a type of translator that support digital devices, primarily computers. The name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.[1] However, there are many different types of compilers. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is a cross-compiler. A bootstrap compiler is written in the language that it intends to compile. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler
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Commercial Software
Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale[1] or that serves commercial purposes. Commercial software can be proprietary software or free and open source software.[2][3][4]Contents1 Background and challenge 2 Commercialization models for software2.1 Proprietary software commercialization 2.2 Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software
commercialization3 Reception and impact 4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground and challenge[edit] While software creation by programming is a time and labor-intensive process, comparable to the creation of physical goods, the reproduction, duplication and sharing of software as digital goods is in comparison disproportionally easy. No special machines or expensive additional resources are required, unlike almost all physical goods and products. Once a software is created it can be copied in infinite numbers, for almost zero cost, by anyone
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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HTML
Hypertext
Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript, it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.[4] Web browsers receive HTML
HTML
documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML
HTML
describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. HTML
HTML
elements are the building blocks of HTML
HTML
pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML
HTML
provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items
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Kernel (operating System)
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.[1] On most systems, it is one of the first programs loaded on start-up (after the bootloader). It handles the rest of start-up as well as input/output requests from software, translating them into data-processing instructions for the central processing unit. It handles memory and peripherals like keyboards, monitors, printers, and speakers.A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a protected area of memory, which prevents it from being overwritten by applications or other, more minor parts of the operating system. The kernel performs its tasks, such as running processes and handling interrupts, in kernel space. In contrast, everything a user does is in user space: writing text in a text editor, running programs in a GUI, etc
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