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William Willett (other)
William
William
is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.[1] It became very popular in the English language
English language
after the Norman conquest of England in 1066,[2] and remained so throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era. It is sometimes abbreviated "Wm." Shortened familiar versions in English include Will, Willy, Bill, and Billy. A common Irish form is Liam. Female forms are Willa, Willemina, Willamette, Wilma and Wilhelmina. Etymology[edit]This article is missing information about the etymology of "Bill". Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (October 2015) William
William
comes ultimately from the given name Wilhelm (cf. Old German Wilhelm > German Wilhelm and Old Norse
Old Norse
Vilhjálmr)
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William (other)
William
William
is a masculine given name
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Anglo-Norman Language
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language
Norman language
that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles
British Isles
during the Anglo-Norman period.[2] When William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
led the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
in 1066, he, his nobles, and many of his followers from Normandy, but also those from northern and western France, spoke a range of langues d'oïl (northern varieties of Gallo-Romance). One of these was Old Norman, also known as "Old Northern French". Other followers spoke varieties of the Picard language
Picard language
or western French. This amalgam developed into the unique insular dialect now known as Anglo-Norman French, which was commonly used for literary and eventually administrative purposes from the 12th until the 15th century
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Norman Language
Previously used:Alderney, Herm England
England
(see Norman England) Ireland
Ireland
(see: Norman Ireland)
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Diphthongation
A diphthong (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong;[1] from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In many dialects of English, the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong (/ɑː/), while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most dialects (/aʊ/)
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Wace
Wace
Wace
(c. 1110[1] – after 1174[2]), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace,[3] was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey
Jersey
and brought up in mainland Normandy
Normandy
(he tells us in the Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou
that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.Contents1 Life 2 Works2.1 Roman de Brut 2.2 Roman de Rou3 Language 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] All that is known of Wace's life comes from autobiographical references in his poems. He neglected to mention his birthdate; sometime between 1099 and 1111 is the most commonly accepted year of his birth. The name Wace, used in Jersey
Jersey
until the 16th century, appears to have been his only name; surnames were not universally used at that time. It was quite a common first name in the Duchy of Normandy, derived from Germanic personal name Wasso
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Roman De Rou
Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou
is a verse chronicle by Wace
Wace
in Norman covering the history of the Dukes of Normandy
Normandy
from the time of Rollo of Normandy
Rollo of Normandy
to the battle of Tinchebray in 1106. It is a national epic of Normandy. Following the success of his Roman de Brut
Roman de Brut
which recounted the history of the Britons, Wace
Wace
was apparently commissioned by Henry II of England to write a similar account of the origins of the Normans
Normans
and their conquest of England
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Villon (surname)
Villon is a French surname. Notable people with the surname include: François Villon
François Villon
(circa 1431–1463), French poet Jacques Villon (1875–1963), French painter Pierre Villon (1901–1980), French Communist Party memberSee also[edit] Raymond Duchamp-Villon
Raymond Duchamp-Villon
(1876–1918), French sculptor, brother of Jacques VillonThis page lists people with the surname Villon
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Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn/) or Charles
Charles
the Great[a] (2 April 742[1][b] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles
Charles
I, was King of the Franks
Franks
from 768, King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 774 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier.[2] The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
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William Of Gellone
William of Gellone
William of Gellone
(c. 755 – 28 May 812 or 814 AD), sometimes called William of Orange,[1] was the second Duke of Toulouse from 790 until 811. In 804, he founded the abbey of Gellone. He was canonized a saint in 1066 by Pope Alexander II.[2] In the tenth or eleventh century,[3] a Latin hagiography, the Vita sancti Willelmi, was composed based on oral traditions. By the twelfth century, William's legend had grown. He is the hero of an entire cycle of chansons de geste, the earliest of which is the Chanson de Guillaume of about 1140. In the chansons, he is nicknamed Fièrebrace (wild arm) on account of his strength and the marquis au court nez (margrave with the short nose) on account of an injury suffered in battle with a giant.Contents1 William in history 2 William in romance 3 References 4 External linksWilliam in history[edit] William was born in northern France
France
in the mid-8th century
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Chanson De Guillaume
The Chanson de Guillaume or Chançun de Willame (English: "Song of William") is a chanson de geste from the first half of the twelfth-century (c.1140,[1] although the first half of the poem may date from as early as the eleventh century;[1][2] along with The Song of Roland
Roland
and Gormont et Isembart, it is considered one of three chansons de geste whose composition incontestably dates from before 1150[3])
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Richard Rowlands
Richard Verstegan, born Richard Rowlands
Richard Rowlands
(c. 1550 – 1640), was an Anglo-Dutch antiquary, publisher, humorist and translator. Verstegan was born in East London the son of a cooper; his grandfather, Theodore Roland Verstegen, was a refugee from Guelders
Guelders
who arrived in England around the year 1500.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Under the patronym Rowlaunde, Richard went to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1564, where he may have studied early English history and the Anglo-Saxon language. Having become a Catholic, he left the university without a degree to avoid swearing the Oath of Supremacy. Thereafter he was indentured to a goldsmith, and in 1574 became a freeman of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths
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Diadem
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. The word derives from the Greek διάδημα diádēma, "band" or "fillet",[1] from διαδέω diadéō, "I bind round", or "I fasten".[2] The term originally referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips often draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. Such ribbons were also used to crown victorious athletes in important sports games in antiquity. It was later applied to a metal crown, generally in a circular or "fillet" shape
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Robert
The name Robert
Robert
is a Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic *χrōþi- "fame" and *berχta- "bright".[1] Compare Old Dutch Robrecht and Old High German
Old High German
Hrodebert (a compound of hruod "fame, glory" and berht "bright"). It is also in use as a surname.[2][3] After becoming widely used in Continental Europe it entered England
England
in its Old French
Old French
form Robert, where an Old English
Old English
cognate form (Hrēodbēorht, Hrodberht, Hrēodbēorð, Hrœdbœrð, Hrœdberð) had existed before the Norman Conquest. The feminine version is Roberta. The Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish form is Roberto. Similar to the name Richard, "Robert" is also a common name in many Germanic languages, including English, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic
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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
(r. 871–899). Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Richard
The Germanic first or given name Richard
Richard
derives from German, French, and English "ric" (ruler, leader, king, powerful) and "hard" (strong, brave, hardy), and it therefore means "strong in rule".[1][3] Nicknames include "Dick", "Dickie",[2] "Rich", "Richie", "Rick", "Ricky",[1] and others. "Richard" is a common name in many Germanic languages, including English, German, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, and Dutch
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