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William Rowley
WILLIAM ROWLEY (c.1585 – February 1626) was an English Jacobean dramatist , best known for works written in collaboration with more successful writers. His date of birth is estimated to have been c. 1585; he was buried on 11 February 1626 in the graveyard of St James\'s, Clerkenwell in north London. (An unambiguous record of Rowley's death was discovered in 1928, but some authorities persist in listing his death-date as 1642.) CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Plays by Rowley * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND WORKRowley was an actor-playwright who specialized in playing clown characters (that is, characters whose function is to provide low comedy). He must also have been a large man, since his forte lay specifically in fat-clown roles. He played the Fat Bishop in Thomas Middleton 's A Game at Chess , and Plumporridge in the same author's Inner Temple Masque. He also wrote fat-clown parts for himself to play: Jaques in All's Lost by Lust (a role "personated by the Poet," the 1633 quarto states), and Bustopha in The Maid in the Mill, his collaboration with John Fletcher . He certainly played Simplicity in The World Tossed at Tennis, and probably Chough in A Fair Quarrel — and since these are Middleton/Rowley collaborations, they qualify as two more parts that Rowley wrote for himself
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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Dramatist
A PLAYWRIGHT, also known as a DRAMATIST, is a person who writes plays . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Early playwrights * 2.2 Aristotle\'s _Poetics_ techniques * 2.3 Neo-classical theory * 2.4 Well-made play * 3 Play formats * 4 Contemporary playwrights in America * 5 New play development in America * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term is not a variant spelling of "playwrite", but something quite distinct: the word wright is an archaic English term for a craftsman or builder (as in a wheelwright or cartwright ). Hence the prefix and the suffix combine to indicate someone who has "wrought" words, themes, and other elements into a dramatic form - someone who crafts plays. The homophone with "write" is in this case entirely coincidental. The term "playwright" appears to have been coined by Ben Jonson in his Epigram 49, "To Playwright", as an insult, to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and so were regarded as the province of poets. This view was held as late as the early 19th century. The term "playwright" later lost this negative connotation. HISTORYEARLY PLAYWRIGHTSThe earliest playwrights in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks
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St James's, Clerkenwell
ST JAMES CHURCH, CLERKENWELL, is an Anglican parish church in Clerkenwell, London, England . St James's Church and Clerkenwell Green CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Nunnery of St Mary: c. 1100–1539 * 1.2 Old Church of St James: 1540–1788 * 1.3 New Church of St James: 1792–present * 2 Historical features * 3 The church now * 4 The crypt * 5 References HISTORYNUNNERY OF ST MARY: C. 1100–1539The parish of St James, Clerkenwell, has had a long and sometimes lively history. The springs which give Clerkenwell its name are mentioned during the reign of Henry II . The parish clerks of London used to perform their mystery plays, plays based on Biblical themes, in the neighbourhood, sometimes in the presence of royalty. In approximately 1100 a Norman baron named Jordan Briset founded an Augustine nunnery dedicated to St Mary, which became wealthy and influential. It had a place of pilgrimage at Muswell Hill , and the parish kept an outlying tract of territory there until the nineteenth century. OLD CHURCH OF ST JAMES: 1540–1788 The old church of St James, Clerkenwell At the dissolution of the nunnery under Henry VIII its church, which by then seems to have acquired a second dedication to St James, was taken into use by its parishioners who had already been using a part of it for some considerable time
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Thomas Middleton
THOMAS MIDDLETON (baptised 18 April 1580 – July 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. Middleton stands with John Fletcher and Ben Jonson among the most successful and prolific playwrights who wrote their best plays during the Jacobean period. He was one of the few Renaissance dramatists to achieve equal success in comedy and tragedy . Also a prolific writer of masques and pageants , he remains one of the most notable and distinctive of Jacobean dramatists. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Reputation * 3.1 Plays * 3.2 Masques and entertainments * 3.3 Poetry * 3.4 Prose * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links LIFEMiddleton was born in London and baptised on 18 April 1580. He was the son of a bricklayer who had raised himself to the status of a gentleman and who, interestingly, owned property adjoining the Curtain Theatre in Shoreditch. Middleton was just five when his father died and his mother's subsequent remarriage dissolved into a 15-year battle over the inheritance of Thomas and his younger sister – an experience which must have informed and perhaps incited his repeated satire at the expense of the legal profession. Middleton attended Queen’s College, Oxford , matriculating in 1598, but he did not graduate. Before he left Oxford (sometime in 1600 or 1601), he wrote and published three long poems in popular Elizabethan styles
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A Game At Chess
A GAME AT CHESS is a comic satirical play by Thomas Middleton
Thomas Middleton
, first staged in August 1624 by the King\'s Men at the Globe Theatre , notable for its political content. CONTENTS * 1 The play * 2 Characters * 2.1 Opening sequence * 2.2 White House * 2.3 Black House * 3 Texts * 4 Synopsis * 4.1 Act I * 4.2 Act II * 4.3 Act III * 4.4 Act IV * 4.5 Act V * 5 Notes * 6 References THE PLAY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )The drama seems to be about a chess match, and even contains a genuine chess opening : the Queen\'s Gambit Declined . Instead of personal names, the characters are known as the White Knight, the Black King, etc. However, audiences immediately recognized the play as an allegory for the stormy relationship between Spain
Spain
(the black pieces) and Great Britain
Great Britain
(the white pieces). King James I of England is the White King; King Philip IV of Spain
Spain
is the Black King. In particular, the play dramatizes the struggle of negotiations over the proposed marriage of the then Prince Charles with the Spanish princess, the Infanta Maria
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John Fletcher (playwright)
JOHN FLETCHER (1579–1625) was a Jacobean playwright. Following William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
as house playwright for the King\'s Men , he was among the most prolific and influential dramatists of his day; both during his lifetime and in the early Restoration , his fame rivalled Shakespeare's. Though his reputation has been far eclipsed since, Fletcher remains an important transitional figure between the Elizabethan popular tradition and the popular drama of the Restoration . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Collaborations with Beaumont * 1.3 Successor to Shakespeare * 2 Stage history * 3 Plays * 3.1 Solo plays * 3.2 Collaborations * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEFletcher was born in December 1579 (baptised 20 December) in Rye , Sussex, and died of the plague in August 1625 (buried 29 August in St. Saviour\'s , Southwark ). His father Richard Fletcher was an ambitious and successful cleric who was in turn Dean of Peterborough , Bishop of Bristol , Bishop of Worcester and Bishop of London (shortly before his death), as well as chaplain to Queen Elizabeth
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Queen Anne's Men
QUEEN ANNE\'S MEN was a playing company , or troupe of actors, in Jacobean era London. In their own era they were known colloquially as the Queen\'s Men — as were Queen Elizabeth\'s Men and Queen Henrietta\'s Men , in theirs. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Personnel * 3 Theatres and performances * 4 Style * 5 Later years * 6 References FORMATIONThe group was formed on the accession of James I in 1603, and named after its patron, James's wife Anne of Denmark . It was a combination of two previously-existing companies, Oxford's Men and Worcester\'s Men . Among the company's most important members were Christopher Beeston , its manager, and Thomas Heywood , the actor-dramatist who wrote many of its plays, including The Rape of Lucrece (printed 1608 ) and The Golden Age (printed 1611 ). William Kempe finished his career with this company, though he died c. 1603. PERSONNELIn 1604, ten members of the new-formed company were granted the sum of four and a half pounds each, to buy red cloth for their livery for the 15 March coronation procession. The ten were Beeston, Heywood, Richard Perkins , Thomas Greene , John Duke , James Holt, Robert Beeston, Robert Lee, Robert Pallant, and Thomas Swinerton. The same ten men are listed in a license granted to the company in 1609 (though Pallant is misnamed "Richard")
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Red Bull Theatre
The RED BULL was a playhouse in London during the 17th century. For more than four decades, it entertained audiences drawn primarily from the northern suburbs, developing a reputation for rowdy, often disruptive audiences. After Parliament closed the theatres in 1642, it continued to host illegal performances intermittently, and when the theatres reopened after the Restoration , it became a legitimate venue again. It burned in the Great Fire of London , among the last of the Renaissance theatres to fall. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 History * 2.1 Jacobean and Caroline * 2.2 After 1642 * 3 Legacy * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGNLess is known of the Red Bull's provenance than of other contemporary venues such as the Globe Theatre and Fortune Theatre . It was constructed in 1604 on St John Street in Clerkenwell ; court documents reveal that it was built by renovating an inn with a central square. This origin accounts for its square floor plan, a design shared only by the original Fortune among period playhouses. It may have been named for cattle that were driven down St John Street toward the markets at Smithfield . Apart from these few facts, little is known of the theatre's particulars
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Prince Charles's Men
PRINCE CHARLES\'S MEN (known as the DUKE OF YORK\'S MEN from 1608 to 1612) was a playing company or troupe of actors in Jacobean and Caroline England. THE JACOBEAN ERA TROUPEThe company was formed in 1608 as the Duke of York's Men, under the titular patronage of King James\' second son, the eight-year-old Charles (1600–49), then the Duke of York. Upon the death of Charles's elder brother Prince Henry in 1612, the company became Prince Charles's Men. They played mainly in the provinces for the first two years of their existence, but in 1610 they received a renewed royal patent that authorized them to play in London, "in such usual houses as themselves shall provide." Seven actors are listed in the patent: John Garland, William Rowley
William Rowley
, Thomas Hobbes , Robert Dawes , Joseph Taylor , John Newton, and Gilbert Reason. Rowley was their dramatist and clown; Joseph Taylor would be their leading man in future years, and then fill the same function with the King\'s Men , when he replaced the late Richard Burbage in May 1619. Garland was a veteran, having been a founding member of Queen Elizabeth\'s Men in 1583. Hobbes had a comparably long career ahead of him: he would be with the King\'s Men as late as 1637. Newton and Reason continued with the company until its end in 1625
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Curtain Playhouse
THE CURTAIN THEATRE was an Elizabethan playhouse located in Hewett Street, Shoreditch
Shoreditch
(part of the modern London Borough of Hackney ), just outside the City of London
City of London
. It opened in 1577, and continued staging plays until 1624. The Curtain was built some 200 yards south of London's first playhouse, The Theatre , which had opened a year before, in 1576. It was called the "Curtain" because it was located near a plot of land called Curtain Close, not because of the sort of front curtain associated with modern theatres, but of its proximity of the City walls, curtain or curtain wall referring to the part of city walls between two bastions . Its remains were rediscovered in archaeological excavation in 2012. The most significant find was that the Curtain was rectangular not round. They found a 14m stage, and evidence of a tunnel under the stage and galleries at the first floor level. Finds included a ceramic bird whistle; ceramic money boxes for collecting entry fees; beads likely for decorating stage costumes and a small statue of Bacchus. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Site and rediscovery * 3 In popular culture * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe Curtain Theatre
Curtain Theatre
was built in 1577 in Shoreditch
Shoreditch
, and was London's second playhouse
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Hope Theatre
The HOPE THEATRE was one of the theatres built in and around London for the presentation of plays in English Renaissance theatre , comparable to the Globe , the Curtain , the Swan , and other famous theatres of the era. The Hope was built in 1613–14 by Philip Henslowe and a partner, Jacob Meade, on the site of the old Beargarden on the Bankside
Bankside
in Southwark , on the south side of the River Thames — at that time, outside the legal bounds of the City of London
London
. Henslowe had had a financial interest in the Beargarden (the ring for bear-baiting and similar "animal sports") since 1594; on 29 August 1613 he contracted with the carpenter Gilbert Katherens to tear down the Beargarden, and to build a theatre in its place, for a fee of £360. (After the Hope was built, it was often still called the "Beargarden" in common parlance and in the extant documentary record.) Construction was slow, taking over a year. The Hope may have been delayed because the Globe was being rebuilt at the same time — it had burned down on 29 June 1613 — and two such large jobs, done simultaneously, may have taxed the personnel and resources of the "construction industry" of Southwark, such as it was at the time
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King's Men (playing Company)
THE KING\'S MEN was the acting company to which William Shakespeare (1564–1616) belonged for most of his career. Formerly known as The Lord Chamberlain\'s Men during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I , they became The King's Men in 1603 when King James I ascended the throne and became the company's patron. The royal patent of 19 May 1603 which authorised the King's Men company named the following players, in this order: Lawrence Fletcher , William Shakespeare, Richard Burbage , Augustine Phillips , John Heminges , Henry Condell , William Sly , Robert Armin , Richard Cowley , "and the rest of their associates...." The nine cited by name became Grooms of the Chamber . On 15 March 1604, each of the nine men named in the patent was supplied with four and a half yards of red cloth for the coronation procession. CONTENTS* 1 Chronologically typed * 1.1 To 1610 * 1.2 To 1616 * 1.3 To 1623 * 1.4 To 1642 * 1.5 Aftermath * 2 Footnotes * 3 References CHRONOLOGICALLY TYPED Main article: King\'s Men personnel TO 1610In their first winter season, between December 1603 and February 1604 the company performed eight times at Court and eleven times in their second, from November 1604 through February 1605, including seven plays by Shakespeare and two by Ben Jonson . This represented a workload twice as great as was typical under Elizabeth
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Globe Theatre
The GLOBE THEATRE was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company , the Lord Chamberlain\'s Men , on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and grandson Sir Matthew Brend , and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. A second Globe Theatre
Globe Theatre
was built on the same site by June 1614 and closed by an Ordinance issued on 6 September 1642 . A modern reconstruction of the Globe, named "Shakespeare\'s Globe ", opened in 1997 approximately 750 feet (230 m) from the site of the original theatre. From 1909, the current Gielgud Theatre
Gielgud Theatre
was called "Globe Theatre", until it was renamed (in honour of John Gielgud
John Gielgud
) in 1994. CONTENTS * 1 Locations * 2 History * 3 Layout * 4 Name * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LOCATIONSExamination of old property records has identified the plot of land occupied by the Globe as extending from the west side of modern-day Southwark Bridge Road eastwards as far as Porter Street and from Park Street southwards as far as the back of Gatehouse Square
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The Spanish Viceroy
THE SPANISH VICEROY is a problem play of English Renaissance drama . Originally a work by Philip Massinger
Philip Massinger
dating from 1624 , it was controversial in its own era, and may or may not exist today in altered form. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 1624 * 1.2 1628 * 1.3 1653 * 2 Gondomar and Osuna * 3 A Very Woman * 4 References HISTORY1624In December 1624, the King\'s Men got into trouble with Sir Henry Herbert , the Master of the Revels , because they performed a play, The Spanish Viceroy, without first obtaining Herbert's license. This step was bound to get them into trouble: Herbert's job was to oversee and censor every play acted in the London theatres, and he was zealous in doing his job, maintaining his authority, and collecting his fees. The outcome was unsurprising, given the way the system of control worked. On 20 December 1624, the King's Men provided Herbert with a "submission", a written apology, signed by each actor who had taken part in the offending performance. The cast included Robert Benfield , George Birch , John Lowin , Thomas Pollard , John Rice , Richard Robinson , William Rowley
William Rowley
, John Shank , Richard Sharpe , Eliard Swanston , and Joseph Taylor
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