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Wilhelmus
"WILHELMUS VAN NASSOUWE", usually known just as the "WILHELMUS" (Dutch : Het Wilhelmus; pronounced ( listen ); English translation : "The William"), is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. It dates back to at least 1572, making it the oldest known national anthem in the world. The national anthem of Japan, Kimigayo , has the oldest lyrics, dating from the 9th century. However, a melody was added only in the late 19th century, making it a poem rather than an anthem for most of its lifespan. Although the "Wilhelmus" was not recognised as the official national anthem until 1932, it has always been popular with parts of the Dutch population and resurfaced on several occasions in the course of Dutch history before gaining its present status. It was also the anthem of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles from 1954 to 1964
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Arrangement
In music , an ARRANGEMENT is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra , concert band , or other musical ensemble . Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations , and endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety"
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Capture Of Brielle
The CAPTURE OF BRIELLE by the Watergeuzen , on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain
Spain
in the Eighty Years\' War . Militarily the success was minor as the port of Brielle
Brielle
was undefended, but it provided the first foothold on land for the rebels at a time when the rebellion was all but crushed, and it offered the sign for a new revolt throughout the Netherlands
Netherlands
which led to the formation of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Legacy * 3 In literature * 4 References * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe Watergeuzen were led by William van der Marck, Lord of Lumey , and by two of his captains, Willem Bloys van Treslong and Lenaert Jansz de Graeff . After they were expelled from England by Elizabeth I, they needed a place to shelter their 25 ships
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Antwerp
ANTWERP (/ˈæntwɜːrp/ ( listen ), Dutch : ANTWERPEN ( listen ), French : ANVERS ) is a Flemish city in Belgium
Belgium
, and is the capital of Antwerp
Antwerp
province in the community of Flanders
Flanders
. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium. Its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels
Brussels
. Antwerp
Antwerp
is on the River Scheldt , linked to the North Sea
North Sea
by the Westerschelde estuary. It is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north from Brussels, and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally
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Rhyme
A RHYME is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs . The word rhyme is also a pars pro toto ("a part (taken) for the whole") that means a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes
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French Wars Of Religion
Uneasy Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
truce * House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
gains the French throne *
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Louis, Prince Of Condé (1530–1569)
LOUIS DE BOURBON or LOUIS I, PRINCE OF CONDé (7 May 1530 – 13 March 1569) was a prominent Huguenot
Huguenot
leader and general, the founder of the House of Condé , a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
. CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Children * 2 Depiction in media * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFEBorn in Vendôme
Vendôme
, he was the fifth son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme
Vendôme
, and the younger brother of Antoine de Bourbon
Antoine de Bourbon
who married Jeanne d\'Albret , Queen of Navarre
Navarre
; their son, Condé's nephew, became Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
. Condé's cousin, through his father - who was the brother of Antoinette de Bourbon - was Mary of Guise
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Psalms
The BOOK OF PSALMS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: תְּהִלִּים‎‎ or תהילים‎, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as PSALMS or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim
Ketuvim
("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
, and a book of the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
. The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοί psalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music." The book is an anthology of individual psalms, with 150 in the Jewish
Jewish
and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian
Christian
churches. Many of the psalms are linked to the name of David
David
, but his authorship is not accepted by modern Bible
Bible
scholars
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Siege Of Chartres (1568)
The SIEGE OF CHARTRES in February to March 1568 was the pivotal event which ended the Second War of Religion , an episode of the French Wars of Religion . The Huguenot
Huguenot
army besieged the town at the end of February. The Prince of Condé had five battering cannons and four light culverins . Part of the army acted as block and the rest, about 9,000 men, encircled the town and used their nine guns to breach the north wall. The Huguenots assaulted the town on 7 March but the Royal garrison of Nicolas des Essars, assisted by inhabitants defended stoutly. The assault was repelled and the breach sealed off. Following the lifted siege, the Peace of Longjumeau was signed, on 23 March. NOTES * ^ A B Wood, James B. (2002). The King's Army. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-521-52513-6 . * ^ A B Knecht, Robert Jean (2002). The French Religious Wars 1562-1598. Osprey Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 1-84176-395-0
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Poet
A POET is a person who writes poetry . Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience. Postmortal fictional portrait of Slovak poet Janko Kráľ (1822-1876) - an idealized romanticized picture of "how a real poet should look like" in Western culture. The Italian Giacomo Leopardi
Giacomo Leopardi
was mentioned by the University of Birmingham as "one of the most radical and challenging of nineteenth-century thinkers". The work of a poet is essentially one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary greatly in different cultures and time periods
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Stylometry
STYLOMETRY is the application of the study of linguistic style , usually to written language, but it has successfully been applied to music and to fine-art paintings as well. Stylometry is often used to attribute authorship to anonymous or disputed documents. It has legal as well as academic and literary applications, ranging from the question of the authorship of Shakespeare\'s works to forensic linguistics . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Methods * 2.1 Writer invariant * 2.2 Neural networks * 2.3 Genetic algorithms * 2.4 Rare pairs * 3 Authorship
Authorship
attribution in instant messaging * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 6.1 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY Stylometry grew out of earlier techniques of analyzing texts for evidence of authenticity, authorial identity, and other questions
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King David
DAVID (/ˈdeɪvᵻd/ ; Hebrew : דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian Dāwîḏ (Dawith) (help ·info ); Dawid; Ancient Greek : Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin : Davidus, David; Gəˁəz : Dawit; possibly meaning "beloved one" ) was the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah , according to the Hebrew Bible . In the biblical narrative, David
David
is a young shepherd who first gains fame as a musician and later by killing Goliath . He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan . Worried that David
David
is trying to take this throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David
David
is anointed as King. David
David
conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul
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Fernando Álvarez De Toledo, 3rd Duke Of Alba
Ottoman-Habsburg wars * Conquest of Tunis Italian Wars * Siege of Perpignan Schmalkaldic War * Battle of Mühlberg * Siege of Wittenberg Dutch Revolt * Battle of Jemmingen * Battle of Jodoigne * Siege of Mons War of the Portuguese Succession * Battle of Alcántara The arrival of the Duke of Alba in Brussels, 1567
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Divine Right Of Kings
The DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, DIVINE RIGHT, or GOD\'S MANDATE is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy . It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
God
. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy , or any other estate of the realm . It implies that only God
God
can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God
God
and may constitute a sacrilegious act. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God
God
", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch
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Act Of Abjuration
The ACT OF ABJURATION (Dutch : Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, literally 'placard of abjuration'), was the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands
Netherlands
from Spain
Spain
in 1581, during the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
. Signed on 26 July 1581 in The Hague
The Hague
, the Act formally confirmed a decision made by the States General of the Netherlands in Antwerp
Antwerp
four days earlier. It declared that all magistrates in the provinces making up the Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
were freed from their oaths of allegiance to the King of Spain
Spain
, Philip II
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