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Wilhelmus
WILHELMUS VAN NASSOUWE, usually known just as the WILHELMUS (Dutch : Het Wilhelmus; pronounced ( listen ); English translation : the William), is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. It dates back to at least 1572, making it the oldest known national anthem in the world. The national anthem of Japan, Kimigayo
Kimigayo
, has the oldest lyrics, dating from the 9th century. However, a melody was added only in the late 19th century, making it a poem rather than an anthem for most of its lifespan. Although the Wilhelmus
Wilhelmus
was not recognised as the official national anthem until 1932, it has always been popular with parts of the Dutch population and resurfaced on several occasions in the course of Dutch history before gaining its present status. It was also the anthem of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles from 1954 to 1964
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De Wilhelmus
DE WILHELMUS (Luxembourgish for The Wilhelmus) is the grand ducal anthem of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. The lyrics were written by the Luxembourgish writer Nik Welter on a traditional melody
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Netherlands
The NETHERLANDS (/ˈnɛðərləndz/ (_ listen ); Dutch : Nederland_ (_ listen ); Frisian : Nederlân_), also known informally as HOLLAND, is a densely populated country in Western Europe , also incorporating three island territories in the Caribbean . It is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . The European portion of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom , and Germany. The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht . Amsterdam is the country\'s capital , while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government
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Adrianus Valerius
ADRIANUS (ADRIAEN) VALERIUS, also known as ADRIAEN VALERIUS, (c. 1575 – 1625) was a Dutch poet and composer , known mostly for his poems dealing with peasant and burgher life and those dealing with the Dutch War of Independence , assembled in his great work Nederlandtsche gedenck-clanck. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work and influence * 3 References and further reading * 4 Notes * 5 External links LIFEValerius was born about 1575 in Middelburg
Middelburg
to an ethnic French notary, François Valéry. His father had a somewhat prosperous career as a notary and customs official and in 1592 obtained a position as Court Scribe to Pieter van Reigersbergh, the Burgemeester
Burgemeester
(mayor) of the city of Veere in the province of Zeeland . Six years later, Adriaen Valerius was named the Toll and Customs Controller for Veere, starting a prosperous career as both a burgher and a patrician of his city
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Netherlands Antilles
The NETHERLANDS ANTILLES (Dutch : _Nederlandse Antillen_ (_ listen ); Papiamentu : Antia Hulandes_) was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea . The islands were also informally known as the DUTCH ANTILLES. The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies , and was dissolved in 2010. The former Dutch colony of Surinam , although it was relatively close by on the continent of South America , did not become part of Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country at the same time. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Translation
TRANSLATION is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting —the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing , translation began only after the appearance of written literature . There exist partial translations of the Sumerian _ Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
_ (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated
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National Anthem
A NATIONAL ANTHEM (also STATE ANTHEM, NATIONAL HYMN, NATIONAL SONG, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song , or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are marches or hymns in style. The countries of Latin America , Central Asia and Europe
Europe
tend towards more operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East
Middle East
, Oceania
Oceania
, Africa
Africa
and the Caribbean use a simple fanfare
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Kingdom Of The Netherlands
The KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (Dutch : _Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden_; pronounced (_ listen ); Papiamento : Reino Hulandes_), commonly known as the NETHERLANDS, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe
Europe
and in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. The four parts of the kingdom—the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Aruba , Curaçao , and Sint Maarten —are constituent countries (_landen_ in Dutch ) and participate on a basis of equality as partners in the kingdom. In practice, however, most of the Kingdom affairs are administered by the Netherlands—which comprises roughly 98% of the Kingdom's land area and population—on behalf of the entire Kingdom
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Kimigayo
"KIMIGAYO" (君が代, ; His Imperial Majesty
Majesty
's Reign) is the national anthem of Japan
Japan
. Its lyrics are the oldest among the world's national anthems, and with a length of 11 measures and 32 characters "Kimigayo" is also one of the world's shortest. Its lyrics are from a _waka _ poem written in the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), and the current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed eleven years earlier. While the title "Kimigayo" is usually translated as "His Imperial Majesty's Reign", no official translation of the title or lyrics has been established in law. From 1888 to 1945 "Kimigayo" served as the national anthem of the Empire of Japan
Japan
. When the Empire was dissolved following its surrender at the end of World War II
World War II
, the State of Japan
Japan
succeeded it in 1945
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Calvinism
CALVINISM (also called the REFORMED TRADITION, REFORMED CHRISTIANITY, REFORMED PROTESTANTISM, or the REFORMED FAITH) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians . Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinism differs from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist , theories of worship , and the use of God\'s law for believers , among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, a basic principle is that the Bible is to be interpreted by itself, meaning the parts that are harder to understand are examined in the light of other passages where the Bible is more explicit on the matter
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Lutheranism
LUTHERANISM is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar , ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire . Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses , first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor
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Anglicanism
ANGLICANISM is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word _Anglican_ originates in _ecclesia anglicana_, a medieval Latin phrase dating to the _ Magna Carta _ (1215) and before, which means the "English Church". Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans". The great majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional Anglican Churches, known as ecclesiastical provinces , which are part of the international Anglican Communion , which is the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church . As the name suggests, the churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by bonds of tradition, affection, and common loyalty
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Dutch Revolt
The DUTCH REVOLT (1566 or 1568–1648) was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain , hereditary ruler of the provinces. The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt but later submitted to Spain . The religious "clash of cultures" built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic , whose first leader was William of Orange , followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe , and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the _United Provinces_. King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion
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Spanish Empire
The SPANISH EMPIRE (Spanish : _Imperio español_) was one of the largest empires in history. It reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs , through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon in the 18th century, when it was the largest empire in the world. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called _the empire on which the sun never sets _. The Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus
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