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Wilhelm Pfeffer
Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer (9 March 1845 – 31 January 1920) was a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.Contents1 Academic career 2 Scientific work 3 Written works 4 ReferencesAcademic career[edit] He studied chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Göttingen,[1] where his instructors included Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler
(1800-1882), William Eduard Weber (1804-1891) and Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig
Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig
(1835-1910). Afterwards, he furthered his education at the universities of Marburg and Berlin. At Berlin, he studied under Alexander Braun
Alexander Braun
(1805-1877) and was an assistant to Nathanael Pringsheim
Nathanael Pringsheim
(1823-1894)
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Botanist
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Precipitate
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension. After sedimentation, especially when using a centrifuge to press it into a compact mass, the precipitate may be referred to as a 'pellet'. Precipitation can be used as a medium. The precipitate-free liquid remaining above the solid is called the 'supernate' or 'supernatant'. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as 'flowers'. When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as regeneration. Sometimes the formation of a precipitate indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction
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Osmosis
Osmosis
Osmosis
(/ɒzˈmoʊ.sɪs/)[1] is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.[2][3][4] It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.[5][6] Osmosis
Osmosis
can be made to do work.[7] Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure
is defined as the external pressure required to be applied so that there is no net movement of solvent across the membrane
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Osmometer
An osmometer is a device for measuring the osmotic strength of a solution, colloid, or compound. There are several different techniques employed in osmometry: Vapor pressure
Vapor pressure
depression osmometers determine the concentration of osmotically active particles that reduce the vapor pressure of a solution. Membrane osmometers
Membrane osmometers
measure the osmotic pressure of a solution separated from pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane. Freezing point
Freezing point
depression osmometer may also be used to determine the osmotic strength of a solution, as osmotically active compounds depress the freezing point of a solution.Osmometers are useful for determining the total concentration of dissolved salts and sugars in blood or urine samples
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Photography
Photography
Photography
is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing
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Chronophotography
Chronophotography
Chronophotography
is an antique photographic technique from the Victorian era
Victorian era
(beginning about 1867–68), which captures movement in several frames of print. These prints can be subsequently arranged either like animation cels or layered in a single frame
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Étienne-Jules Marey
Étienne-Jules Marey
Étienne-Jules Marey
(French: [maʁɛ]; 5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d'Or
Côte-d'Or
– 15 May 1904,[1] Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation, cinematography and the science of laboratory photography. He is widely considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was also a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Chronophotography 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]Flying pelican captured by Marey around 1882. He found a way to record several phases of movements in one photoMarey started by studying blood circulation in the human body
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Time-lapse Photography
Time-lapse photography
Time-lapse photography
is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is an apparent 30 times speed increase. In a similar manner, film can also be played at a much lower rate than it was captured at, slowing down fast action, as slow motion or high-speed photography. Processes that would normally appear subtle to the human eye, e.g. the motion of the sun and stars in the sky or plant growth, become very pronounced. Time-lapse is the extreme version of the cinematography technique of undercranking
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Earthenware
Earthenware
Earthenware
is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery[2] that has normally been fired below 1200°C.[3] Porcelain, bone china and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify, are the main other important types of pottery. Earthenware
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Copper
Copper
Copper
is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Ferrocyanide
Ferrocyanide is the name of the anion [Fe(CN)6]4−. Salts of this coordination complex give yellow solutions. It is usually available as the salt potassium ferrocyanide, which has the formula K4Fe(CN)6. [Fe(CN)6]4− is a diamagnetic species, featuring low-spin iron(II) center in an octahedral ligand environment
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Manometer
Pressure
Pressure
measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface. Pressure
Pressure
is typically measured in units of force per unit of surface area. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure
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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".[1][2][3] In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs
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Oxidative
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (A)
An abbreviation (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short [1]) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.[2]:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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