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Who Is A Jew?
"Who is a Jew?" (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי‎ pronounced [ˈmihu jehuˈdi]) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish
Jewish
self-identification. The question is based on ideas about Jewish
Jewish
personhood, which have cultural, ethnic, religious, political, genealogical, and personal dimensions. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
and Conservative Judaism
Judaism
follow the Halakha, deeming a person to be Jewish
Jewish
if their mother is Jewish
Jewish
or they underwent a proper conversion. Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
accept both matrilineal and patrilineal descent. Karaite Judaism
Judaism
predominantly follows patrilineal descent. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is also commonly defined through ethnicity
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline
Outline
may refer to: Outline
Outline
(list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline
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Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat
(/ʃəˈbɑːt/; Hebrew: שַׁבָּת‎ [ʃa'bat], "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (['ʃa.bəs], Yiddish: שבת‎) or the Sabbath
Sabbath
is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities, often with great rigor, and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Beit Yosef (book)
Beit Yosef (Hebrew: בית יוסף‎) — also transliterated Beth Yosef — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro. It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba'ah Turim. It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch).This article about a Judaism-related book or text is a stub
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Targum
The targumim (singular: "targum", Hebrew: תרגום‬) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship.[1] The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, and the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter".[2] It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Brit Milah
The brit milah (Hebrew: בְּרִית מִילָה‬, pronounced [bʁit miˈla]; Ashkenazi pronunciation: [bʁis ˈmilə], "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish
Yiddish
pronunciation: bris [bʀɪs]) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life
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Tzedakah
Tzedakah
Tzedakah
[tsedaˈka] or Ṣ'daqah [sˤəðaːˈqaː] in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew: צדקה‎, is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity - [1] though it is a different concept from the modern English understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, where as tzedakah is an obligation. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasizes is an important part of living a spiritual life. Unlike voluntary philanthropy, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation that must be performed regardless of financial standing, even by poor people
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Jewish Prayer
Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
(Hebrew: תְּפִלָּה‬, tefillah [tefiˈla]; plural Hebrew: תְּפִלּוֹת‬, tefillot [tefiˈlot]; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile [ˈtfɪlə], plural תּפֿלות tfilles [ˈtfɪləs]; Yinglish: davening /ˈdɑːvənɪŋ/ from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers, often with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book
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Bene Israel
The Bene Israel
Israel
("Sons of Israel"), formerly known in India
India
as the "Native Jew Caste",[2] are a historic community of Jews in India. It has been suggested[3] that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative (Ashkenazi/Sephardi) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan
Konkan
area[4] to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai,[3] but also to Pune, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata, India; and Karachi, in today's Pakistan.[5] Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period. In the early part of the twentieth century, many Bene Israel
Israel
became active in the new film industry, as actresses and actors, producers and directors
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613 Commandments
The tradition that 613 commandments
613 commandments
(Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות‬, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud
Talmud
Makkot 23b.[1] Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides'. The 613 commandments
613 commandments
include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh)
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Romaniote Jews
The Romaniote Jews
Jews
or Romaniots (Greek: Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; Hebrew: רומניוטים‬, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in Greece
Greece
and neighboring Eastern Mediterranean countries for more than 2,000 years, being the oldest Jewish community in the Eurasian continent. Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire, Romaioi. Large communities were located in Thebes, Ioannina, Chalcis, Corfu, Arta, Preveza, Volos, Patras, Corinth, and on the islands of Zakynthos, Lesbos, Chios, Samos, Rhodes, and Cyprus, among others
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Torah
Torah
(/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Tanakh
Tanakh
(/tɑːˈnɑːx/;[1] תַּנַ"ךְ, pronounced [taˈnaχ] or [təˈnax]; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian
Christian
Old Testament. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text
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