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White-nose Syndrome
White-nose syndrome
White-nose syndrome
(WNS) is an emerging disease in North American bats which by 2012 was associated with at least 5–7 million bat deaths.[1] The condition is named for a distinctive fungal growth around the muzzles and on the wings of hibernating bats and was first identified from a February 2006 photo taken in a cave in Schoharie County, New York.[2] It has rapidly spread.[3] By 2016, the fungus had been found in caves and mines of 29 states throughout the Northeastern US and 5 eastern Canadian provinces.[4][5] In March 2016, it reached the West Coast, when it was confirmed in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) in the state of Washington[6] and in April 2017, it was found in several bat species in Texas, bringing the total number of infected states to 33.[citation needed] The disease is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus
Pseudogymnoascus
destructans, which colonizes the bat's skin
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Quebec
Quebec (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ ( listen);[8] French: Québec [kebɛk] ( listen))[9] is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only the territory of Nunavut is larger
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Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(/ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɪts/ (listen), /-zɪts/), officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, the states of Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
to the south, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett
Massachusett
tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England
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Russell Cave
The Russell Cave
Cave
National Monument
National Monument
is a U.S. National Monument
U.S. National Monument
in northeastern Alabama, United States, close to the town of Bridgeport. The Monument was established on May 11, 1961, when 310 acres (1.3 km2) of land were donated by the National Geographic Society to the American people. It is now administered and maintained by the National Park Service
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Jackson County, Alabama
Footnotes:  County Number 39 on Alabama
Alabama
Licence PlatesJackson County is the northeasternmost county in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 53,227.[1] The county seat is Scottsboro.[2] It was named for Andrew Jackson, general in the United States
United States
Army and afterward President of the United States of America.[3] Jackson County is a prohibition or dry county, but three cities within the county (Bridgeport, Scottsboro, and Stevenson) are "wet", allowing alcohol sales. Jackson County comprises the Scottsboro, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area
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Psychrophile
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C[1] to +10 °C. They are found in places that are permanently cold, such as the polar regions and the deep sea
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Pseudogymnoascus
Pseudogymnoascus
Pseudogymnoascus
is a genus of fungi in the family Pseudeurotiaceae.Contents1 History 2 Species Characteristics 3 Ecology 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] It was circumscribed by A. Raillo in 1929[1] for two species, P. roseus and P. vinaceus. No type specimens were retained by Raillo. In 1972, Samson designated a neotype for P. roseus,[2] recognized three species (P. roseus Raillo, P. bhattii Samson and P. caucasicus Cejp & Milko)[2][3] and synonymized P. vinaceus with P. roseus. In 1982, Müller described a fourth species, P. alpinus. In 2006, Rice and Currah described two additional species, P
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Pseudeurotiaceae
Connersia Leuconeurospora Levispora Neelakesa – tentative Pleuroascus Pseudeurotium Pseudogymnoascus TeberdiniaThe Pseudeurotiaceae are a family of fungi in the division Ascomycota.[1] This family can not yet be taxonomically classified in any of the ascomycetous classes and orders with any degree of certainty (incertae sedis).[2]Contents1 General characteristics 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeneral characteristics[edit] The general characteristics for members within this family include hyaline or brown ascospores, within a thin-walled ascus inside a cleistothecial ascomata.[3] See also[edit]List of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
families incertae sedisReferences[edit]^ Malloch D, Cain RF (1970). "Five new genera in the new family Pseudeurotiaceae". Canadian Journal of Botany. 48 (10): 1815–25. doi:10.1139/b70-267.  ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007"
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Airborne Disease
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air. Such diseases include many of considerable importance both in human and veterinary medicine. The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through breathing, talking, coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, toilet flushing or any activities which generates aerosol particles or droplets. Human airborne diseases do not include conditions caused by air pollution such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasses and any airborne particles, though their study and prevention may help inform the science of airborne disease transmission.[citation needed]Contents1 Overview 2 Causes 3 Transmission 4 Prevention 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview[edit] Airborne diseases include any that are caused via transmission through the air. Many airborne diseases are of great medical importance
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Torpor
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate. Torpor enables animals to survive periods of reduced food availability.[1] The term "torpor" can refer to the time a hibernator spends at low body temperature, lasting days to weeks, or it can refer to a period of low body temperature and metabolism lasting less than 24 hours, as in "daily torpor". Animals that undergo daily torpor include birds (even tiny hummingbirds, notably Cypselomorphae)[2][3] and some mammals, including many marsupial species,[4] rodent species (such as mice), and bats.[5] During the active part of their day, such animals maintain normal body temperature and activity levels, but their metabolic rate and body temperature drops during a portion of the day (usually night) to conserve energy
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Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory acidosis
is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis). Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
is produced continuously as the body's cells respire, and this CO2 will accumulate rapidly if the lungs do not adequately expel it through alveolar ventilation. Alveolar hypoventilation thus leads to an increased PaCO2
PaCO2
(a condition called hypercapnia)
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Potassium
Potassium
Potassium
is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form salts. Potassium
Potassium
in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac-colored flame
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Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7State of ConnecticutFlag SealNickname(s):The Constitution State (official) The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State The Provisions State The Land of Steady HabitsMotto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet
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VOA
Voice of America
Voice of America
(VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States
United States
federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting. As the largest U.S. international broadcaster, VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in more than 40 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe. Primarily viewed by foreign audiences, VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States
United States
and its leaders.[1] Originally established in 1942,[2] the VOA charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415)[3] was signed into law in 1976 by former President Gerald Ford
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New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Hampshire
(/ˈhæmpʃər/) is a state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the south, Vermont
Vermont
to the west, Maine
Maine
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec
Quebec
to the north. New Hampshire
Hampshire
is the 5th smallest by area and the 10th least populous U.S. state. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city. It has no general sales tax, nor income tax other than on interest and dividends. The New Hampshire primary
New Hampshire primary
is the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"
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New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°00′N 74°30′W / 40°N 74.5°W / 40; -74.5State in the United StatesNew JerseyStateState of New Jersey FlagSealNickname(s): The Garden State[1]Motto(s):  Liberty
Liberty
and prosperityMap of the United States with New Jersey
Jersey
highlightedCountryUnited StatesBefore statehoodProvince of New JerseyAdmitted to the UnionDecember 18, 1787 (3rd)CapitalTrentonLargest cityNewarkLargest metroGreater New YorkGovernment • GovernorPhil Murphy (D) • Lieutenant governor Sheila Oliver
Sheila Oliver
(D)LegislatureNew Jersey
Jersey
Legislature • Upper houseSenate • Lower houseGeneral AssemblyU.S
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