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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe
Europe
. There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world
Western world
is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin
Latin
: occidens "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient
Orient
). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe
Europe
, Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries
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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine (a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism) was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides involved in the conflict, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars , supported by the two sides
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Western Christian
WESTERN CHRISTIANITY is a term referring to the scope of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
. Western Christianity consists of the Latin Church of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern churches in communion with Rome
Rome
), the Waldensians , Hussites , and a wide variety of Protestant denominations , including Anglicanism , Anabaptism , Calvinism , Lutheranism , and others. The name is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity . Western Christianity initially developed in Europe
Europe
during the first centuries AD
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Catholic
CATHOLICISM (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church , as expressed in the Nicene Creed
Creed
of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: " in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. The most frequent use is to refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, consisting of the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Pope
Pope
in Rome . However, the description "Catholic" is also used by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East
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Colonialism
COLONIALISM is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories. Colonialism
Colonialism
involves unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples . The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, and the Americas . At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism , designed to strengthen the home economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usually allowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19th century, however, the powerful British Empire
British Empire
gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade , with few restrictions or tariffs
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Babylonia
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian
Akkadian
-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq
Iraq
). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon . Babylon greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called Māt Akkadī "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian
Akkadian
language
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Ancient Egypt
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
Egypt
. It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt
Egypt
and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under the first pharaoh , Narmer
Narmer
(commonly referred to as Menes
Menes
)
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Protestant Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism
German mysticism
Start of the
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Minoan Civilization
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age
Iron Age
The MINOAN CIVILIZATION was an Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilization on the island of Crete
Crete
and other Aegean islands
Aegean islands
which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece
Greece
. The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans
Arthur Evans
. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe
Europe
, with historian Will Durant
Will Durant
calling the Minoans "the first link in the European chain". The term "Minoan", which refers to the mythical King Minos
Minos
, originally described the pottery of the period
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MENA
MENA
MENA
is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA
MENA
covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco
Morocco
to Iran
Iran
, including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East
Middle East
. The population of the MENA
MENA
region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA
MENA
acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing
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Ancient Near East
MESOPOTAMIA • Akkadian Empire Assyria
Assyria
Babylonia
Babylonia

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Oceania
OCEANIA (UK : /ˌoʊʃiˈɑːniə, ˌoʊsi-/ or US : /ˌoʊʃiːˈæniə/ ) is a term used to denote a continent , or a region , comprising Australia
Australia
and the Pacific islands
Pacific islands
. Oceania consists of four subregions : Australasia
Australasia
, Melanesia
Melanesia
, Micronesia , and Polynesia . Located in the eastern and western hemispheres , Oceania
Oceania
covers an area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 41,050,699. Oceania
Oceania
is the smallest continental grouping in land area and the second smallest after Antarctica
Antarctica
in population
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Phoenicia
Coordinates : 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111 Phoenicia knʿn / kanaʿan (Phoenician ) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē (Greek ) 1500 BC –539 BC Map of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routes CAPITAL * Byblos
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Southeast Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Sub-Saharan Africa
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa
Africa
that lies south of the Sahara
Sahara
. According to the UN , it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. It contrasts with North Africa
Africa
, whose territories are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world . Somalia
Somalia
, Djibouti
Djibouti
, Comoros
Comoros
and Mauritania
Mauritania
are geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa, but are likewise Arab states and part of the Arab
Arab
world
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South Asia
SOUTH ASIA or SOUTHERN ASIA is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent , which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities , adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate , which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu Kush
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