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Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Western Ghats
also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world.[1][2] It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment
Escarpment
of India.[3] The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea
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Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
(/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar
Madagascar
(Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar
Madagascar
split from the Indian peninsula
Indian peninsula
around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar
Madagascar
is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Geologic Time Scale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Cenozoic
The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era ( /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk, ˌsɛ-/)[1][2] is the current geological era, covering the period from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
is also known as the Age of Mammals, because of the large mammals that dominate it. The continents also moved into their current positions during this era.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Divisions2.1 Paleogene Period 2.2 Neogene 2.3 Quaternary3 Animal life 4 Tectonics 5 Climate 6 Life 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature[edit] Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life."[3] The era is also known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic
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Basalt
Basalt
Basalt
(pronounced /bəˈsɔːlt/, /ˈbæsɒlt/ or /ˈbæsɔːlt/)[1] is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon
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Laterite
Laterite
Laterite
is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Laterite
Laterite
has commonly been referred to as a soil type as well as being a rock type. This and further variation in the modes of conceptualizing about laterite (e.g. also as a complete weathering profile or theory about weathering) has led to calls for the term to be abandoned altogether
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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World Heritage Committee
The World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 states parties[1] that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.[2] According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years, however many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their
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Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea
Sea
of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
bounded on the north by Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia
Somalia
and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India. Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Erythraean Sea
Sea
and the Persian Sea. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft)
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Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Kozhikode
([koːɻikːoːɖ] ( listen)), or Calicut, is a city in the state of Kerala
Kerala
in southern India
India
on the Malabar Coast. Calicut is the largest urban area in the state and 192nd largest urban area in the world.[4] The city lies about 275 kilometres (171 mi) west of Bangalore. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of eastern spices.[9] It was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris (Zamorins) in the Middle Ages and later of the erstwhile Malabar District
Malabar District
under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, and Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode
Kozhikode
on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar
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Swamithoppe
Swamithope (alternate spelling Swamithoppe) is the name of a village that lies southeast of the City of Nagercoil, the capital of the District of Kanyakumari in the State of Tamil Nadu, at the extreme southern tip of India. In the past, Swamithope was known by the name Poovandanthoppe which was part of the village, Sasthankutty Vilai[1] Swamithope lies about half-way between the cities of Nagercoil and Kanniyakumari on the Nagercoil-Kanniyakumari road. Swamithope is located at 8°07′N 77°29′E / 8.12°N 77.49°E / 8.12; 77.49 Swamithoppu is a synonym for this village, as used in the holy book (Akilam) of the Ayyavazhi religion. Swamithoppu is the name earned by the village Tamarikulam being the origin of the Ayyavazhi religion in the mid-nineteenth century
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Drainage System (geomorphology)
In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. A drainage basin is the topographic region from which a stream receives runoff, throughflow, and groundwater flow
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Threatened Species
Threatened species
Threatened species
are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future. Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the population dynamics measure of critical depensation, a mathematical measure of biomass related to population growth rate
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Fault (geology)
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface
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