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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. For centuries, Western Europe
Europe
was defined as the countries with dominant Catholic and Protestant churches, while Eastern Europe
Europe
was dominated by the Eastern Orthodox Church . A more contemporary definition subdivides Western Europe
Europe
into several other regions like Central Europe
Europe
or Northern Europe
Europe

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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe . There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin : _occidens_ "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient ). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe , Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance , Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries
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Western European Union
The WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU; French: Union de l'Europe occidentale, UEO) was an international organisation and military alliance, tasked with implementing the Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954), an amended version of the original 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU was established by seven European nations allied with the United States
United States
(the Western Bloc and NATO
NATO
members) during the Cold War . After the end of the Cold War, WEU tasks and institutions were gradually transferred to the Common Security and Defence Policy of the geographically larger, and in terms of integration more comprehensive, European Union
European Union

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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication<
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Expedition 29
(l-r) Furukawa, Fossum, Volkov, Ivanishin, Burbank and Shkaplerov ISS expeditions ← Expedition 28
Expedition 28
Expedition 30
Expedition 30
→ EXPEDITION 29 was the 29th long-duration expedition to the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). The expedition formally began on 16 September 2011, with the departure from the ISS of the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft. Astronauts Satoshi Furukawa
Satoshi Furukawa
, Michael Fossum
Michael Fossum
and Sergey Volkov , who had arrived at the ISS aboard Soyuz TMA-02M
Soyuz TMA-02M
in June 2011, began their Expedition 29
Expedition 29
service at this time
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International Space Station
The INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) is a space station , or a habitable artificial satellite , in low Earth orbit . Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays , and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles . The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology , human biology , physics , astronomy , meteorology , and other fields . The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars
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West
WEST is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass . It is the opposite direction from east . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 Cultural * 4 Symbolic meanings * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "West" is a Germanic word passed into some Romance languages (_ouest_ in French, _oest_ in Catalan, _ovest_ in Italian, _oeste_ in Spanish and Portuguese). As is apparent in the Gothic term _vasi_ ( Visigoths ), it stems from the same Indo-European root that gave the Sanskrit _vas-ati_ (night) and _vesper_ (evening) in Latin. NAVIGATIONTo go west using a compass for navigation , one needs to set a bearing or azimuth of 270°. West
West
is the direction opposite that of the Earth
Earth
's rotation on its axis, and is therefore the general direction towards which the Sun appears to constantly progress and eventually set
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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Catholicism
CATHOLICISM (from Greek καθολικισμός, _katholikismos_, "universal doctrine") is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as _Catholic _ in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church , as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "_ in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church._ The most frequent use is to refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church , consisting of the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome . However, the description "Catholic" is also used by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East
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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church . It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom , together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy . The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical . With its origins in Germany , the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences , which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Byzantine , Eastern Orthodox , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term _ Eastern Bloc _. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Central Europe
CENTRAL EUROPE lies between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Europe
Western Europe
. The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity . Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI , Centrope and the Visegrád Four . While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
as very highly developed . Central Europe
Europe
according to The World Factbook (2009), Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (1998) Central Europe
Europe
according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography)
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Northern Europe
NORTHERN EUROPE is the northern part or region of Europe
Europe

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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: _RES PUBLICA ROMANA_; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Augustus
AUGUSTUS (Latin : _Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus _; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor , controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born GAIUS OCTAVIUS into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian _gens_ Octavia . His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as OCTAVIANUS (Anglicized as OCTAVIAN). He, Mark Antony , and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi , the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators
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