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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. For centuries, Western Europe
Europe
was defined as the countries with dominant Catholic and Protestant churches, while Eastern Europe
Europe
was dominated by the Eastern Orthodox Church . A more contemporary definition subdivides Western Europe
Europe
into several other regions like Central Europe
Europe
or Northern Europe
Europe
. Western Europe's significant historical events include the time of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(including the Punic, Gallic an Civil Wars fought by Rome), the reign of Augustus
Augustus
, the spreading of The Gospel under St Paul , Pax Romana , Fall of the Western Roman Empire reign of Charlemange , the Viking Invasions, the Black Death , the Renaissance , the Age of Discovery , the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church , the Age of Enlightenment , the French Revolution , Industrial Revolution , the two World Wars and the Cold War
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe . There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin : _occidens_ "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient ). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe , Judaism and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel . In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the traditions of the Renaissance , Protestant Reformation , Age of Enlightenment – and shaped by the expansive imperialism and colonialism of the 15th to 20th centuries. Before the Cold War era, the traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian ( Catholic - Protestant ) countries and culture. Its political usage was temporarily changed by the antagonism during the Cold War in the mid-to-late 20th Century (1947–1991). The term originally had a literal geographic meaning
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Western European Union
The WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU; French: Union de l'Europe occidentale, UEO) was an international organisation and military alliance, tasked with implementing the Modified Treaty of Brussels (1954), an amended version of the original 1948 Treaty of Brussels. The WEU was established by seven European nations allied with the United States
United States
(the Western Bloc and NATO
NATO
members) during the Cold War . After the end of the Cold War, WEU tasks and institutions were gradually transferred to the Common Security and Defence Policy of the geographically larger, and in terms of integration more comprehensive, European Union
European Union
. This process was completed in 2009 when a solidarity clause between the member states of the European Union
European Union
, which was similar (but not identical) to the WEU's mutual defence clause, entered into force with the Treaty of Lisbon . The states party to the Modified Treaty of Brussels
Brussels
consequently decided to terminate that treaty on 31 March 2010, with all the remaining WEU's activities to be ceased within 15 months. On 30 June 2011, the WEU was officially declared defunct
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Expedition 29
(l-r) Furukawa, Fossum, Volkov, Ivanishin, Burbank and Shkaplerov ISS expeditions ← Expedition 28 Expedition 30 → EXPEDITION 29 was the 29th long-duration expedition to the International Space Station (ISS). The expedition formally began on 16 September 2011, with the departure from the ISS of the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft. Astronauts Satoshi Furukawa , Michael Fossum and Sergey Volkov , who had arrived at the ISS aboard Soyuz TMA-02M in June 2011, began their Expedition 29 service at this time. Soyuz TMA-22 , which brought the remaining three Expedition 29 crew members to the ISS, was originally scheduled to launch in September 2011, but due to the launch failure of the Progress M-12M resupply vehicle on 24 August, its launch was delayed to 14 November. It docked successfully with the ISS on 16 November 2011. Expedition 29 officially ended with the undocking of Soyuz TMA-02M on 21 November 2011
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International Space Station
The INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) is a space station , or a habitable artificial satellite , in low Earth orbit . Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays , and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles . The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology , human biology , physics , astronomy , meteorology , and other fields . The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km (205 and 270 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the _Zvezda _ module or visiting spacecraft. It completes 15.54 orbits per day. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian _ Salyut _, _ Almaz _, and _ Mir _ stations as well as _ Skylab _ from the US. The station has been continuously occupied for 7003611300000000000♠16 years and 269 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000
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West
WEST is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass . It is the opposite direction from east . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 Cultural * 4 Symbolic meanings * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "West" is a Germanic word passed into some Romance languages (_ouest_ in French, _oest_ in Catalan, _ovest_ in Italian, _oeste_ in Spanish and Portuguese). As is apparent in the Gothic term _vasi_ ( Visigoths ), it stems from the same Indo-European root that gave the Sanskrit _vas-ati_ (night) and _vesper_ (evening) in Latin. NAVIGATIONTo go west using a compass for navigation , one needs to set a bearing or azimuth of 270°. West
West
is the direction opposite that of the Earth
Earth
's rotation on its axis, and is therefore the general direction towards which the Sun appears to constantly progress and eventually set. Moving continuously west is following a circle of latitude . CULTURALThe phrase "the West" is often spoken in reference to the Western world , which includes the European Union
European Union
(also the EFTA countries), the Americas, Israel, Australia, New Zealand and (in part) South Africa. The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and the Western Christianity
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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Catholicism
CATHOLICISM (from Greek καθολικισμός, _katholikismos_, "universal doctrine") is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as _Catholic _ in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church , as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "_ in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church._ The most frequent use is to refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church , consisting of the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome . However, the description "Catholic" is also used by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East . It also occurs in some Protestant denominations , notably Anglicanism , as well as Independent Catholicism . The term _Roman Catholic _ is sometimes used for the church in communion with Rome, especially in ecumenical contexts and in countries where other churches use the term _Catholic_, to distinguish it from broader meanings of the term
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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church . It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom , together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy . The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical . With its origins in Germany , the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences , which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo , John Wycliffe , and Jan Hus —only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting movement. Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Byzantine , Eastern Orthodox , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term _ Eastern Bloc _. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Some historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church . The contemporary Orthodox Church had shared communion with the contemporary Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism of AD 1054, which had been triggered by disputes over doctrine, especially the authority of the Pope . Prior to the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Eastern Orthodox had also shared communion with the Oriental Orthodox churches , separating primarily over differences in Christology
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Central Europe
CENTRAL EUROPE lies between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Europe
Western Europe
. The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity . Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI , Centrope and the Visegrád Four . While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
as very highly developed . Central Europe
Europe
according to The World Factbook (2009), Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie (1998) Central Europe
Europe
according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography). Many Central European countries and regions were part of the German and Austro-Hungarian empires and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
and thus share common cultural and historical connections
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Northern Europe
NORTHERN EUROPE is the northern part or region of Europe
Europe

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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: _RES PUBLICA ROMANA_; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome's highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic
Republic
developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked
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Augustus
AUGUSTUS (Latin : _Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus _; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor , controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born GAIUS OCTAVIUS into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian _gens_ Octavia . His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as OCTAVIANUS (Anglicized as OCTAVIAN). He, Mark Antony , and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi , the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators . The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate , the executive magistrates , and the legislative assemblies . In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator
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