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Werowocomoco
WEROWOCOMOCO was a town that served as the headquarters of the Powhatan , a Virginia Algonquian political and spiritual leader when the English founded Jamestown in 1607. The name Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
comes from the Powhatan werowans (weroance ), meaning "leader" in English; and komakah (-comoco), "settlement". The town was documented by English settlers in 1608 as located near the north bank of the York River in what is now Gloucester County . It was separated by that river and the narrow Virginia Peninsula
Virginia Peninsula
from the English settlement of Jamestown, located on the James River
James River
. Powhatan\'s Chimney at Wicomico , a site of historical ruins associated with a house purported to have been built for Powhatan, was long thought to have been the site of this capital. Its probable true site was tentatively identified by archaeologists in 2003 at a site on Purtan Bay , further west on the York River. Their survey and excavations revealed extensive artifacts, with habitation from the 13th into the 17th century. Its first settlement was dated about CE , with complex earthworks built about 1400 CE. The area that the Native Americans considered Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
may have included both the newly identified Purtan Bay site and the site of Powhatan's Chimney site
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National Register Of Historic Places
The NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (NRHP) is the United States federal government 's official list of districts , sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts . Each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service(NPS), an agency within the United States Department of the Interior . Its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation , coordinate, identify, and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed
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Virginia Landmarks Register
The VIRGINIA LANDMARKS REGISTER (VLR) is a list of historic properties in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
. The state's official list of important historic sites, it was created in 1966. The Register serves the same purpose as the National Register of Historic Places . The nomination form for any Virginia
Virginia
site listed on the VLR is sent forward to the National Park Service for consideration for listing on the National Register. The Virginia
Virginia
Landmarks Register is maintained by the Virginia Department of Historic Resources . CONTENTS * 1 List of Virginia
Virginia
Landmarks * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links LIST OF VIRGINIA LANDMARKS Fort Vause, Virginia
Virginia
Almost all of the over 2800 sites listed on the national register are also listed on the state register. For those listings see: National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
Virginia
. VIRGINIA REGISTER ONLY The following are listed on the Virginia
Virginia
register, but not the national register: This list IS INCOMPLETE. Please help to improve it, or discuss the issue on the talk page
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Gloucester, Virginia
GLOUCESTER COURTHOUSE is a census-designated place (CDP) in and the county seat of Gloucester County , Virginia
Virginia
, United States
United States
. The population was 2,951 at the 2010 census. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Education * 5 References HISTORYThe Gloucester County Courthouse Square Historic District , Gloucester Downtown Historic District , Abingdon Glebe House , Airville , Burgh Westra , Cappahosic House , Gloucester Point Archaeological District , Gloucester Women\'s Club , Hockley , Little England , Roaring Spring , Rosewell , Toddsbury , T.C. Walker House , Ware Parish Church , and Warner Hall are listed on the National Register of Historic Places . * Scenery around the courthouse circle. * Scenery around the courthouse circle. * Scenery around the courthouse circle. * Gloucester Women's Club. * T.C. Walker House. * The old Coca Cola bottling plant. GEOGRAPHYGloucester Courthouse is located at 37°24′46″N 76°31′27″W / 37.41278°N 76.52417°W / 37.41278; -76.52417 (37.412876, -76.524140)
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Powhatan (Native American Leader)
POWHATAN (June 17, 1545—April 1618), whose proper name was WAHUNSENACAWH (alternately spelled WAHUNSENACAH, WAHUNSUNACOCK or WAHUNSONACOCK), was the paramount chief of Tsenacommacah , an alliance of Algonquian-speaking Virginia Indians
Virginia Indians
in the Tidewater region
Tidewater region
of Virginia
Virginia
at the time English settlers landed at Jamestown in 1607. Powhatan, alternately called "King" or "Chief" Powahatan by the English, led the main political and military power facing the early colonists, was probably the older brother of Opchanacanough , who led attacks against the English in 1622 and 1644. He was the father of Pocahontas
Pocahontas
, who eventually converted to Christianity and married the English settler John Rolfe . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Life * 3 Appearance * 4 Sites associated with Powhatan * 5 Fictional representations * 6 Further reading * 7 References * 8 External links NAMEIn 1607, the English colonists were introduced to Wahunsenacawh as Powhatan and understood this latter name to come from Powhatan's hometown near the falls of the James River near present-day Richmond, Virginia
Virginia

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Jamestown, Virginia
The JAMESTOWN settlement in the Colony of Virginia
Virginia
was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. William Kelso writes that Jamestown "is where the British Empire
British Empire
began." Jamestown was established by the Virginia
Virginia
Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 (O.S. , May 14, 1607 N.S. ), and was considered permanent after brief abandonment in 1610. It followed several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke . Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia
Virginia
for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699. The settlement was located within the country of Tsenacommacah , which was ruled by the Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan Confederacy
, and specifically in that of the Paspahegh tribe. The natives initially welcomed and provided crucial provisions and support for the colonists, who were not agriculturally inclined. Relations with the newcomers soured fairly early on, leading to the total annihilation of the Paspahegh in warfare within 3 years
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Weroance
WEROANCE is an Algonquian word meaning leader or commander among the Powhatan confederacy of the Virginia
Virginia
coast and Chesapeake Bay region. Weroances were under a paramount chief called Powhatan. The Powhatan Confederacy , encountered by the colonists of Jamestown and adjacent area of the Virginia
Virginia
Colony beginning in 1607, spoke an Algonquian language. Each tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy was led by its own weroance. Most foreign writers who have come across a weronace only did so on a special occasion. This is the case because a foreigners presence was special. John Smith noted that there are few differences between weroances and their subjects. In older texts, especially from the time of the early Jamestown settlers, spelling was not standardized, so the following spellings are used in different texts: * weeroance * weroance * werowance * werowans * wyroance * wyrounce * wyrounncesA WEROANSQUA is a female ruler. Spellings of this word also vary. CONTENTS * 1 Powers of a weroance * 2 Individual weroances * 3 Matrilineal inheritance * 4 References POWERS OF A WEROANCEParamount chiefs let their district and subordinate weroances make the final decision on how to handle a hostile situations. This was made apparent with the events that took place in 1607 and the hostility with the new comers (English settlers)
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York River (Virginia)
The YORK RIVER is a navigable estuary , approximately 34 miles (55 km) long, in eastern Virginia
Virginia
in the United States
United States
. It ranges in width from 1 mile (1.6 km) at its head to 2.5 miles (4.0 km) near its mouth on the west side of Chesapeake Bay . Its watershed drains an area including portions of 17 counties of the coastal plain of Virginia
Virginia
north and east of Richmond . Its banks were inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. In 2003 evidence was found of the likely site of Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
, one of two capitals used by the paramount chief Powhatan before 1609. The site was inhabited since 1200 CE as a major village. Enormously important in later U.S. history, the river was also the scene of early settlements of the Virginia
Virginia
Colony . It was the site of significant events and battles in both the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War
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Gloucester County, Virginia
GLOUCESTER COUNTY (/ˈɡlɒstər/ ) is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 36,858. Its county seat is Gloucester Courthouse . The county was founded in 1651 in the Virginia
Virginia
Colony and is named for Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester (third son of King Charles I of England ). Gloucester County is included in the Virginia
Virginia
Beach -Norfolk -Newport News , VA-NC Metropolitan Statistical Area . Located at the east end of the lower part of the Middle Peninsula , it is bordered on the south by the York River and the lower Chesapeake Bay on the east. The waterways shaped its development. Gloucester County is about 75 miles (121 km) east of Virginia's capital, Richmond . Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
, capital of the large and powerful Powhatan Confederacy (a union of 30 Indian tribes under a paramount chief ), was located on this part of the peninsula. In 2003 archeologists established that dense village had been located at this site from AD 1200 to the early 17th century. The county was developed by colonists primarily for tobacco plantations, based on the labor of enslaved Africans imported in the slave trade. Tobacco
Tobacco
was one of the first commodity crops but fishing also developed as an important industry
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Virginia Peninsula
The VIRGINIA PENINSULA is a peninsula in southeast Virginia
Virginia
, USA, bounded by the York River , James River , Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
and Chesapeake Bay . It is sometimes known as the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
to distinguish it from two other peninsulas to the north, the Middle Peninsula
Peninsula
and the Northern Neck . It is the site of historic Jamestown , founded in 1607 as the first English settlement in North America. Geographically located at the northwestern reaches, Charles City and New Kent counties are part of the Virginia
Virginia
Peninsula. In the 21st century, they are also considered part of the Richmond-Petersburg region. The rest of the Virginia Peninsula
Peninsula
is all part of the Virginia
Virginia
Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA ( Metropolitan Statistical Area ) with a population of about 1.8 million. The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
MSA is the common name for the metropolitan area that surrounds the body of water of the same name. It is the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the Southeast and the 32nd largest in the United States
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James River
The JAMES RIVER is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia
Virginia
. It is 348 miles (560 km) long, extending to 444 miles (715 km) if one includes the Jackson River , the longer of its two source tributaries. The James River
James River
drains a catchment comprising 10,432 square miles (27,020 km2). The watershed includes about 4% open water and an area with a population of 2.5 million people (2000). It is the 12th longest river in the United States
United States
that remains entirely within a single state. CONTENTS * 1 Course * 2 History * 2.1 James River and Kanawha Canal * 3 Recreation * 4 Dams * 5 Bridges * 5.1 Highway bridges below Richmond * 5.2 Highway bridges at Richmond * 5.3 Highway bridges west of Richmond * 5.4 Bicycles * 6 James River
James River
Reserve Fleet * 7 James River
James River
in music * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links COURSEThe James River
James River
forms in the Appalachian Mountains , near Iron Gate on the border between Alleghany and Botetourt counties, from the confluence of the Cowpasture and Jackson rivers, and flows into the Chesapeake Bay at Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
. Tidal waters extend west to Richmond , the capital of Virginia, at the river's fall line (the head of navigation )
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Powhatan's Chimney
POWHATAN\'S CHIMNEY is located at present day Wicomico , in Gloucester County, Virginia
Gloucester County, Virginia
, United States. Powhatan's Chimney was long considered clue to the site of Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
, a capital village of Chief Powhatan
Chief Powhatan
in what is now Virginia
Virginia
. According to English colonist Captain John Smith , Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
was located on the north side of the York River about 25 miles (40 km) from where the river divided at West Point, Virginia
Virginia
, at the time the Jamestown Settlement was established in 1607. Soon after in 1609, Chief Powhatan
Chief Powhatan
relocated his capital to a more inland location for better security. The exact location of Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
was lost through changes in settlement patterns. The Powhatan Confederacy and its people were largely displaced by English settlers by the middle of the 17th century. Powhatan's Chimney Monument Historical Marker Legend tells that Powhatan's Chimney was from a house that Smith built at Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
for the chief
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Wicomico, Virginia
WICOMICO is an unincorporated community in Gloucester County , in the U. S. state
U. S. state
of Virginia
Virginia
. Timberneck was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. REFERENCES * ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. * U.S
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Common Era
COMMON ERA or CURRENT ERA (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era ) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, i.e., since the beginning of AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as BEFORE THE COMMON or CURRENT ERA (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era system, which distinguishes eras as AD (_anno Domini_, " year of Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union . The expression has been traced back to Latin usage to 1615, as _vulgaris aerae_, and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era". The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish academics
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