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Werethekau
WERETHEKAU (alts. URTHEKAU, WERET HEKAU) was an Ancient Egyptian deity . She served as the personification of supernatural powers, _weret hekau_ meaning "great of magic" or "great enchantress". IN MYTHAs a deity dedicated to protection, she often appeared on funerary objects, particularly weapons, to allow the deceased to protect him or herself against the dangers of the underworld. She also was placed on ivory knives as a charm to protect pregnant and nursing mothers. Her power was one of the inherent qualities of the Crowns of Egypt . As goddess of the crowns she was a snake or a lion-headed woman and dwelt in the state sanctuary. As the wife of Ra-Horakhty she is depicted with his solar disk on her head. Werethekau
Werethekau
was an epithet frequently conferred on Isis, Sekhmet , Mut , and others. SEE ALSO * Eye of Horus REFERENCES _ Wikimedia Commons has media related to WERETHEKAU _. * ^ Barbara S. Lesko, The great goddesses of Egypt, University of Oklahoma Press, 1999, p 74 * ^ Manfred Lurker, _The Routledge Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Devils and Demons_, Routledge 2004, ISBN 0-415-34018-7 , p.192 * ^ Lurker, _op.cit._, p.192 * ^ Erik Hornung, _Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many_, Cornell University Press 1996, ISBN 0-8014-8384-0 , p.284 * ^ Carol A. R
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Ramesses II
RAMESSES II /ˈræməsiːz, ˈræmsiːz, ˈræmziːz/ (variously spelled also RAMESES or RAMSES; born c. 1303 BC; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as RAMESSES THE GREAT, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt . He often is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire . His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". He is known as OZYMANDIAS in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne name , _Usermaatre Setepenre _, "The justice of is powerful—chosen of Rê". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant , reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan . He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia , commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein . The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I . He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC
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Ancient Egypt
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt . It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer ). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age . Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom , during the Ramesside period, where it rivalled the Hittite Empire , Assyrian Empire and Mitanni Empire , after which it entered a period of slow decline
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Ancient Egyptian Deities
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DEITIES are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt . The beliefs and rituals surrounding these gods formed the core of ancient Egyptian religion , which emerged sometime in prehistory . Deities represented natural forces and phenomena , and the Egyptians supported and appeased them through offerings and rituals so that these forces would continue to function according to _maat _, or divine order. After the founding of the Egyptian state around 3100 BC, the authority to perform these tasks was controlled by the pharaoh , who claimed to be the gods' representative and managed the temples where the rituals were carried out. The gods' complex characteristics were expressed in myths and in intricate relationships between deities: family ties, loose groups and hierarchies, and combinations of separate gods into one. Deities' diverse appearances in art —as animals, humans, objects, and combinations of different forms—also alluded, through symbolism, to their essential features. In different eras, various gods were said to hold the highest position in divine society, including the solar deity Ra , the mysterious god Amun , and the mother goddess Isis . The highest deity was usually credited with the creation of the world and often connected with the life-giving power of the sun
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Crowns Of Egypt
The Egyptian civilization used a number of different crowns throughout its existence. Some were used to show authority, while others were used for religious ceremonies. Each crown was worn by different pharaohs or deities , and each crown had its own significance and symbolic meaning. The crowns include the atef , the deshret , the hedjet , the khepresh , the pschent , and the Hemhem
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Ra-Horakhty
RA (/rɑː/ ; Egyptian : Rꜥ , Rˤ) or RE (/reɪ/ ; Coptic : ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god . By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion , identified primarily with the noon sun. In later Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus , as Ra-Horakhty ("Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons"). He was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky , the earth , and the underworld . He was associated with the falcon or hawk . When in the New Kingdom the god Amun
Amun
rose to prominence he was fused with Ra as Amun-Ra
Amun-Ra
. During the Amarna Period , Akhenaten suppressed the cult of Ra in favor of another solar deity, the Aten , the deified solar disc, but after the death of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
the cult of Ra was restored. The cult of the Mnevis bull , an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city
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Sekhmet
In Egyptian mythology , SEKHMET (/ˈsɛkˌmɛt/ or SACHMIS (/ˈsækmᵻs/ ; also spelled Sakhmet, Sekhet, or Sakhet, among other spellings, means "the powerful one") is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing. She is depicted as a lioness , the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath formed the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. Her cult was so dominant in the culture that when the first pharaoh of the twelfth dynasty , Amenemhat I , moved the capital of Egypt to Itjtawy , the centre for her cult was moved as well. Religion, the royal lineage, and the authority to govern were intrinsically interwoven in ancient Egypt during its approximately three millennia of existence. Sekhmet also is a Solar deity , sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and Bast . She bears the Solar disk and the uraeus which associates her with Wadjet and royalty. With these associations she can be construed as being a divine arbiter of the goddess Ma\'at (Justice, or Order) in the Judgment Hall of Osiris , associating her with the Wadjet (later the Eye of Ra ), and connecting her with Tefnut as well
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Mut
MUT, which meant mother in the ancient Egyptian language , was an ancient Egyptian mother goddess with multiple aspects that changed over the thousands of years of the culture. Alternative spellings are MAUT and MOUT. She was considered a primal deity, associated with the waters from which everything was born through parthenogenesis . She also was depicted as a woman with a head dress. The rulers of Egypt each supported her worship in their own way to emphasize their own authority and right to rule through an association with Mut. Some of Mut's many titles included World-Mother, Eye of Ra , Queen of the Goddesses, Lady of Heaven, Mother of the Gods, and She Who Gives Birth, But Was Herself Not Born of Any. CONTENTS * 1 Changes of mythological position * 2 Depictions * 3 In Karnak
Karnak
* 4 Personal piety * 5 References * 6 External links CHANGES OF MYTHOLOGICAL POSITION Mut
Mut
was a title of the primordial waters of the cosmos, Naunet , in the Ogdoad cosmogony during what is called the Old Kingdom , the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 and 2134 BC. However, the distinction between motherhood and cosmic water later diversified and led to the separation of these identities, and Mut
Mut
gained aspects of a creator goddess, since she was the mother from which the cosmos emerged
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Eye Of Horus
The EYE OF HORUS is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet (also written as Wedjat, or Udjat", Uadjet, Wedjoyet, Edjo or Uto ). The Eye of Horus
Horus
is similar to the Eye of Ra , which belongs to a different god, Ra , but represents many of the same concepts. The name Wadjet is derived from "wadj" meaning "green", hence "the green one", and was known to the Greeks and Romans as "uraeus" from the Egyptian "iaret" meaning "risen one" from the image of a cobra rising up in protection. Wadjet was one of the earliest of Egyptian deities who later became associated with other goddesses such as Bast , Sekhmet , Mut
Mut
, and Hathor
Hathor
. She was the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt and the major Delta shrine the "per-nu" was under her protection. Hathor
Hathor
is also depicted with this eye. Funerary amulets were often made in the shape of the Eye of Horus. The Wadjet or Eye of Horus
Horus
is "the central element" of seven "gold , faience , carnelian and lapis lazuli " bracelets found on the mummy of Shoshenq II . The Wedjat "was intended to protect the pharaoh in the afterlife" and to ward off evil
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RELIGION was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh , the king of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of his position. He acted as the intermediary between his people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe . The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples . Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic. These practices were distinct from, but closely linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
declined. Another important aspect was the belief in the afterlife and funerary practices . The Egyptians made great efforts to ensure the survival of their souls after death, providing tombs, grave goods, and offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased
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Egyptian Mythology
EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt , which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion . Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art , particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts , and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. Inspired by the cycles of nature, the Egyptians saw time in the present as a series of recurring patterns, whereas the earliest periods of time were linear. Myths are set in these earliest times, and myth sets the pattern for the cycles of the present. Present events repeat the events of myth, and in doing so renew _maat _, the fundamental order of the universe. Amongst the most important episodes from the mythic past are the creation myths , in which the gods form the universe out of primordial chaos; the stories of the reign of the sun god Ra upon the earth; and the Osiris myth , concerning the struggles of the gods Osiris , Isis , and Horus against the disruptive god Set . Events from the present that might be regarded as myths include Ra's daily journey through the world and its otherworldly counterpart, the Duat
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan". In the 19th century, paganism was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups that were inspired by the ancient world . In the 20th century, practitioners of contemporary pagan or neopagan religious movements adopted the term for themselves. These practioners incorporate beliefs or practices different than those in the main world religions, such as nature worship
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Pantheism
PANTHEISM is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity , or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god , and hold a broad range of doctrines differing with regards to the forms of and relationships between divinity and reality. Pantheism
Pantheism
was popularized in Western culture as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza , :p.7 particularly his book Ethics
Ethics
, published in 1677. The term "pantheism" was coined by Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations. Pantheistic concepts date back thousands of years, and pantheistic elements have been identified in branches of Eastern religions
Eastern religions
such as Hinduism
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Polytheism
POLYTHEISM (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, _polytheismos)_ is the worship of or belief in multiple deities , which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses , along with their own religions and rituals . In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles , and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God
God
or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies). Polytheism
Polytheism
is a type of theism . Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism , the belief in a singular God
God
, in most cases transcendent. Polytheists do not always worship all the gods equally, but they can be henotheists , specializing in the worship of one particular deity. Other polytheists can be kathenotheists , worshiping different deities at different times. Polytheism
Polytheism
was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age
Iron Age
up to the Axial Age and the development of Abrahamic religions , the latter of which enforced strict monotheism
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