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Wends
WENDS (Old English : Winedas, Old Norse : Vindr, German : Wenden, Winden, Danish : vendere, Swedish : vender, Polish : Wendowie) is a historical name for West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to Western Slavs living within the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, though not always. Mieszko I , the first historical ruler of Poland
Poland
, also appeared as "Dagome, King of the Wends
Wends
" (Old Norse: Vindakonungr). The name has possibly survived in Finnic languages (Finnish : Venäjä, Estonian : Vene, Karelian : Veneä) denoting Russia
Russia
. CONTENTS * 1 People termed "Wendes" in the course of history * 2 Roman-era Veneti * 3 History * 3.1 Rise (500–1000) * 3.2 Decline (1000–1200) * 4 Other uses * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links PEOPLE TERMED "WENDES" IN THE COURSE OF HISTORY Main article: Lechites
Lechites
According to one theory, Germanic peoples first applied this name to the ancient Veneti , and then after the migration period they transferred it to their new neighbours, the Slavs
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Veleti
The VELETI (German : _Wieleten_; Polish : _Wieleci_) or WILZI(ANS) (also _Wiltzes_; German: _Wilzen_) were a group of medieval Lechitic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany
Germany
; see Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
. In common with other Slavic groups between the Elbe and Oder
Oder
Rivers, they were often described by Germanic sources as Wends . In the late 10th century, they were continued by the Lutici . In Einhard
Einhard
's _ Vita Karoli Magni _, the Wilzi are said to refer to themselves as _Welatabians_. CONTENTS * 1 Veleti
Veleti
tribes * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links VELETI TRIBES Wikisource has original text related to this article: GEOGRAPHUS BAVARUS The Veleti
Veleti
moved into modern Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and adjacent southern areas from the south in the course of the 6th-7th centuries, assimilating the remaining Germanic population and West Slav tribes that had previously moved into that area from the east. The Bavarian Geographer 's anonymous medieval document compiled in Regensburg
Regensburg
in 830 contains a list of the tribes in Central Europe east of the Elbe. Among other tribes it also lists the _Uuilci_ (Veleti), featuring 95 civitas
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Vend (letter)
VEND (Ꝩ, ꝩ) is a letter of Old Norse . It was used to represent the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/. It was related to and probably derived from the Old English letter Wynn ( Runic alphabet ᚹ and later the Latin alphabet (Ƿ ƿ), except that the bowl was open on the top, not being connected to the stem, which made it somewhat resemble a letter Y . It was eventually replaced with v or u for most writings
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Vends
The VENDS (Latvian : Vendi, Russian : Венды) were a small tribe that lived in the 12th to 16th centuries in the area around the town of Wenden (now Cēsis ) in present-day north-central Latvia . According to Livonian Chronicle of Henry prior to their arrival in the area of Wenden in the 12th century, the Vends were settled in Ventava county (Latin : Wynda) by the Venta River near the present city of Ventspils in western Latvia. Their proximity to more numerous Finnic and Baltic tribes inclined the Vends to ally with the German crusaders , who began building a stone castle near the older Vendian wooden fortress in 1207. The castle of Wenden later became the residence of the Master of the Livonian Order . The last known record of the Vends' existence as a distinct entity dates from the sixteenth century. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Flag of Latvia * 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINHenry of Latvia made the first surviving mention of the Vends as they were chased away from Courland and Christianized by Germans during Livonian Crusade of 1198-1290. Traditionally researchers believe that Vends spoke a Finnic language and were related to the neighboring Livonians and the Votes . Sometimes they are associated with the Western Slavic Wends
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National Personification
A NATIONAL PERSONIFICATION is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people. It may appear in editorial cartoons and propaganda . Some early personifications in the Western world tended to be national manifestations of the majestic wisdom and war goddess Minerva / Athena
Athena
, and often took the Latin
Latin
name of the ancient Roman province . Examples of this type include Britannia , Germania , Hibernia , Helvetia and Polonia . Examples of personifications of the Goddess of Liberty include Marianne
Marianne
, the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(_Liberty Enlightening the World_), and many examples of United States
United States
coinage. Examples of representations of the everyman or citizenry—rather than of the nation itself—are Deutscher Michel and John Bull
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Sclavinia
The SCLAVENI (in Latin ) or صقالبة (in Arabic ) or SKLAVENOI (in Greek ) were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs . They were mentioned by early Byzantine chroniclers as barbarians having appeared at the Byzantine borders along with the Antes , another Slavic group. The Sclaveni were differentiated from the Antes (East Slavs ) and Wends (West Slavs ), however, described as kin. Eventually, most South Slavic tribes accepted Byzantine suzerainty, and came under Byzantine cultural influence. _Sclaveni_ and _Sklavinia_ ("Slav land") were both widely used as a general catch-all terms until the emergence of separate tribal names by the 10th century. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Byzantine historiography * 3 History * 3.1 6th century * 3.2 7th century * 3.3 8th century * 4 Tribes * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links TERMINOLOGY See also: Slavs (ethnonym) The Byzantines broadly grouped the numerous Slav tribes living in proximity with the Eastern Roman Empire into two groups: the Sklavenoi and the Antes
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Germania
_GERMANIA_ (/dʒərˈmeɪniə/ ) was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples . It extended from the Danube in the south to the Baltic Sea , and from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula . The Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire , Germania Inferior to the north (present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and western Germany), and Germania Superior to the south (Switzerland, southwestern Germany, and eastern France). Germania was inhabited mostly by Germanic tribes, but also Celts , early Slavs , Balts and Scythians . The population mix changed over time by assimilation, and especially by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area. Later, Julius Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul , and there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. Tacitus wrote the most complete account of Germania that still survives. The origin of the term _Germania_ is uncertain, but was known by Caesar's time, and may be Gallic in origin
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Gallia
GAUL ( Latin : _GALLIA_) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France , Luxembourg , Belgium , most of Switzerland , Northern Italy , as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine . It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi). According to the testimony of Julius Caesar , Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica , Belgica and Aquitania . Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture , which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia , Noricum , Pannonia and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons , who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
OTTO III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty , Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu . Otto III was crowned as King of Germany
King of Germany
in 983 at the age of three, shortly after his father's death in southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Emirate of Sicily . Though the nominal ruler of Germany, Otto III's minor status ensured his various regents held power over the Empire. His cousin Henry II, Duke of Bavaria , initially claimed regency over the young king and attempted to seize the throne for himself in 984. When his rebellion failed to gain the support of Germany's aristocracy, Henry II was forced to abandon his claims to the throne and to allow Otto III's mother Theophanu to serve as regent until her death in 991. Otto III was then still a child, so his grandmother, the Dowager Empress
Dowager Empress
Adelaide of Italy , served as regent until 994. In 996, Otto III marched to Italy to claim the titles King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, which had been left unclaimed since the death of Otto II in 983
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Gospels Of Otto III
The GOSPELS OF OTTO III ( Munich , Bayerische Staatsbibliothek , Clm 4453) is a late 10th or early 11th century illuminated Gospel Book . The manuscript is a major example of Ottonian illumination . It was produced at Reichenau Abbey in the workshop headed by the monk Liuthar for Otto III , the son of Otto II , who died when he was three, and the Byzantine Princess Theophanu . The manuscript has 276 folios which measure 334mm by 242mm, containing the Vulgate versions of the four gospels plus prefatory matter including the Eusebian canon tables . The illumination includes a page miniature of the enthroned Otto III being brought gifts by personifications of the four provinces of the Empire , Roma, Gallia, Germania, and Sclavinia. The manuscript contains an additional 34 miniatures, including four evangelist portraits . In addition there are 12 decorated pages of canon tables, and each gospel is introduced by a full page decorated incipit page. The style of illustration is strongly influenced by Byzantine art . The Ottonian emperors sought to emulate the Eastern Roman empire's courtly grandeur; "the hieratic effect and ponderous ceremonial impact of the miniatures mark a return to the icon-like quality of the Byzantine consular diptychs of the sixth century"
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Limes Saxoniae
The LIMES SAXONIAE ( Latin for "Limit of Saxony "), also known as the LIMES SAXONICUS or SACHSENWALL ("Saxon Dyke"), was an unfortified limes or border between the Saxons and the Slavic Obotrites , established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein . Limes Saxoniae marker near Hornbek After Charlemagne had removed Saxons from some of their lands and given it to the Obotrites (who were allies of Charlemagne), he finally managed to conquer the Saxons in the Saxon Wars . In 811 he signed the Treaty of Heiligen with the neighbouring Danes and may at the same time have reached a border agreement with the Polabian Slavs in the east. This border should not be thought of as a fortified line, however, but rather a defined line running through the middle of the border zone, an area of bog and thick forest that was difficult to pass through. According to Adam of Bremen 's description in the Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum about 1075, it ran from the Elbe river near Boizenburg northwards along the Bille river to the mouth of the Schwentine at the Kiel Fjord and the Baltic Sea . It was breached several times by the Slavic Obotrites (983 and 1086) and Mieszko II Lambert of Poland (1028 and 1030)
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Saxons
The SAXONS (Latin : Saxones, Old English
Old English
: Seaxe, Old Saxon
Old Saxon
: Sahson, Low German : Sassen, German : Sachsen, Dutch : Saksen, Welsh : Saeson) were a group of Germanic tribes first mentioned as living near the North Sea
North Sea
coast of what is now Germany
Germany
( Old Saxony ), in the late Roman empire . They were soon mentioned as raiding and settling in many North Sea
North Sea
areas, as well as pushing south inland towards the Franks
Franks
. Significant numbers settled in large parts of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and formed part of the merged group of Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
who eventually organised the first united Kingdom of England
England
. Many Saxons
Saxons
however remained in Germania
Germania
( Old Saxony c. 531-804), where they resisted the expanding Frankish Empire through the leadership of the semi-legendary Saxon hero, Widukind
Widukind
. Initially, Saxons
Saxons
of Britain and those of Old Saxony (Northern Germany) were both referred to as 'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner
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Obotrites
The OBOTRITES (Latin : Obotriti) or OBODRITES (Polish : Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled ABODRITES (German : Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Holstein
Holstein
in northern Germany
Germany
(see Polabian Slavs ). For decades, they were allies of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in his wars against the Germanic Saxons
Saxons
and the Slavic Veleti . The Obotrites under Prince Thrasco defeated the Saxons
Saxons
in the Battle of Bornhöved (798) . The still heathen Saxons
Saxons
were dispersed by the emperor, and the part of their former land in Holstein
Holstein
north of Elbe
Elbe
was awarded to the Obotrites
Obotrites
in 804, as a reward for their victory. This however was soon reverted through an invasion of the Danes
Danes
. The Obotrite regnal style was abolished in 1167, when Pribislav was restored to power by Duke Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
, as Prince of Mecklenburg, thereby founding the German House of Mecklenburg
House of Mecklenburg

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Schleswig-Holstein
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN (German: ; Danish : _Slesvig-Holsten_) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany , comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig . Its capital city is Kiel ; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg . Also known in more dated English as SLESWICK-HOLSATIA, the Danish name is _Slesvig-Holsten,_ the Low German name is _Sleswig-Holsteen,_ and the North Frisian name is _Slaswik-Holstiinj._ Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig- Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark
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Aestui
The AESTI (also AESTII or AESTS) were an ancient people first described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his treatise Germania (circa 98 CE). According to Tacitus, AESTUI, the land of the Aesti, was located somewhere east of the Suiones (Swedes) and west of the Sitones (possibly the Kvens ), on the Suebian (Baltic) Sea . This and other evidence suggests that Aestui was in or near the present-day Russian enclave of Kaliningrad Oblast (previously East Prussia ). Despite the phonological similarity between Aestui and the modern ethnonyms of Estonia , especially in popular etymologies , the two geographical areas are not contiguous and there are few, if any, direct historical links between them. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Historical sources * 2.1 Tacitus * 2.2 Cassiodorus * 2.3 Jordanes * 2.4 Alfred the Great * 2.5 Adam of Bremen * 3 Notes * 4 References OVERVIEWGeographical and linguistic evidence suggests that the Aesti were, ethnologically, a Baltic people . They may have been synonymous with the Brus/Prūsa or "Old Prussians" – that is, not a Germanic people like modern Prussians , and not a Finno-Ugric people, such as modern Estonians
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