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Wends
WENDS (Old English : Winedas, Old Norse
Old Norse
: Vindr, German : Wenden, Winden, Danish : vendere, Swedish : vender, Polish : Wendowie) is a historical name for West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to Western Slavs living within the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, though not always. Mieszko I , the first historical ruler of Poland
Poland
, also appeared as "Dagome, King of the Wends
Wends
" (Old Norse: Vindakonungr). The name has possibly survived in Finnic languages (Finnish : Venäjä, Estonian : Vene, Karelian : Veneä) denoting Russia
Russia

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Germanic Peoples
The GERMANIC PEOPLES (also called Teutonic , Suebian , or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age . The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower , Upper , and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe
Western Europe
, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Milceni
The MILCENI or MILZENI (Czech : Milčané; German : Milzener; Polish : Milczanie) were a West Slavic tribe, who settled in the present-day Upper Lusatia region. They were first mentioned in the middle of the 9th century AD by the Bavarian Geographer , who wrote of 30 civitates which possibly had fortifications. They were gradually conquered by Germans
Germans
during the 10th century. Modern descendents of the Milceni
Milceni
are the Sorbs
Sorbs
of the Free State of Saxony , Germany
Germany
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe Milceni
Milceni
travelled to Upper Lusatia in the 7th century during the Migration Period . The exact borders of their settlement area are disputed
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Polish Language
POLISH (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
. Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet , which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Danish Language
DANISH /ˈdeɪnᵻʃ/ ( listen ) (dansk pronounced ( listen ); dansk sprog, ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark
Denmark
and in the region of Southern Schleswig
Schleswig
in northern Germany
Germany
, where it has minority language status. There are also minor Danish-speaking communities in Norway
Norway
, Sweden
Sweden
, Spain
Spain
, the United States
United States
, Canada
Canada
, Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina
Argentina

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Swedish Language
SWEDISH ( svenska (help ·info ) ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by more than 10 million people - predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as sole official language), and in parts of Finland
Finland
, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish . It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent also Danish , although the amount of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse
Old Norse
, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages
Germanic languages
by number of speakers
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego " (English: "
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Oder
The ODER (German pronunciation: ; Czech , Lower Sorbian and Polish : Odra, Upper Sorbian : Wódra) is a river in Central Europe
Central Europe
. It rises in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and flows (generally north- and northwest-ward) through western Poland
Poland
, later forming 187 kilometres (116 mi) of the border between Poland
Poland
and Germany, part of the Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches (the Dziwna , Świna and Peene
Peene
) that empty into the Gulf of Pomerania
Pomerania
of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea

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Pomeranians (Slavic Tribe)
The POMERANIANS (German : Pomoranen; Kashubian : Pòmòrzónie; Polish : Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
between the mouths of the Oder
Oder
and Vistula
Vistula
Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania
Farther Pomerania
and Pomerelia ). They spoke the Pomeranian language belonging to the Lechitic branch of the West Slavic language family . Several ethnic groups of West Slavs between 9th–10th centuries Without land. Pomeranians driven by the Germans to the Baltic Islands (Expulsion of Pomeranians in the 11th century) by Wojciech Gerson
Wojciech Gerson
, 1888, National Museum in Szczecin
Szczecin
The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "Land at the Sea".
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Migration Period
The MIGRATION PERIOD was a time of widespread migrations within or into Europe in the middle of the first millennium AD. It has also been termed the VöLKERWANDERUNG (German ) and, from the Roman and Greek perspective the BARBARIAN INVASIONS. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic , Slavic , and other peoples into the territory of the then Roman Empire , with or without accompanying invasions or war. The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years, they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century, often defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD
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Scandinavia
SCANDINAVIA /ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages . In English usage, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
sometimes refers to the area known as the Scandinavian Peninsula . The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
. The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland , an overseas territory of Denmark
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Karelian Language
KARELIAN LANGUAGE (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia . Linguistically Karelian is closely related to the Finnish dialects spoken in eastern Finland
Finland
and some Finnish linguists even classified Karelian as a dialect of Finnish. Karelian is not to be confused with the Southeastern dialects of Finnish, sometimes referred to as karjalaismurteet ('Karelian dialects') in Finland. There is no single standard Karelian language. Each writer writes in Karelian according to their own dialectal form. Three main written standards have been developed, for North Karelian; Olonets Karelian ; and Tver Karelian. All variants are written with the Latin -based Karelian alphabet , though the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
has been used in the past
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