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Wends
Wends
Wends
(Old English: Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, German: Wenden, Winden, Danish: vendere, Swedish: vender, Polish: Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs
Slavs
living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to West Slavs
Slavs
and Slovenes
Slovenes
living within the Holy Roman Empire, though not always
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Vend (letter)
Vend (Ꝩ, ꝩ) is a letter of Old Norse. It was used to represent the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/. It was related to and probably derived from the Old English letter Wynn
Wynn
( Runic alphabet
Runic alphabet
ᚹ and later the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
(Ƿ ƿ), except that the bowl was open on the top, not being connected to the stem, which made it somewhat resemble a letter Y
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Finnish Language
Finnish ( suomi (help·info), or suomen kieli [ˈsuomen ˈkieli]) is a Finnic language
Finnic language
spoken by the majority of the population in Finland
Finland
and by ethnic Finns
Finns
outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland
Finland
and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway
Norway
by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is a member of the Finnic language
Finnic language
family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages
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Danish Language
Danish /ˈdeɪnɪʃ/ ( listen) (dansk pronounced [ˈdanˀsɡ] ( listen); dansk sprog, [ˈdanˀsɡ ˈsbʁɔwˀ]) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark
Denmark
and in the region of Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.[3] Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland
Greenland
speak Danish as their home language. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
who lived in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
during the Viking Era
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Finnic Languages
The Finnic languages
Finnic languages
(Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic),[nb 1] are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland
Finland
and Estonia, by about 7 million people. Traditionally, eight Finnic languages
Finnic languages
have been recognized.[7] The major modern representatives of the family are Finnish and Estonian, the official languages of their respective nation states.[8] The other Finnic languages
Finnic languages
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region are Ingrian and Votic, spoken in Ingria
Ingria
by the Gulf of Finland; and Livonian, once spoken around the Gulf of Riga
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Estonian Language
Estonian (eesti keel [ˈeːsti ˈkeːl] ( listen)) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia
Estonia
and 160,000 outside Estonia.[3] It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family.Contents1 Classification 2 History2.1 Estonian literature 2.2 State language3 Dialects 4 Writing system4.1 Alphabet 4.2 Orthography5 Phonology 6 Grammar 7 Vocabulary7.1 Ex nihilo
Ex nihilo
lexical enrichment8 Sample text 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksClassification[edit] Estonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages, along with Finnish, Karelian, and other nearby languages. The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Karelian Language
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language
Finnic language
spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia. Linguistically, Karelian is closely related to the Finnish dialects spoken in eastern Finland, and some Finnish linguists have even classified Karelian as a dialect of Finnish. Karelian is not to be confused with the Southeastern dialects of Finnish, sometimes referred to as karjalaismurteet ("Karelian dialects") in Finland.[5] There is no single standard Karelian language. Each writer writes in Karelian according to their own dialectal form. Three main written standards have been developed, for North Karelian, Olonets Karelian and Tver Karelian
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Migration Period
The Migration Period
Migration Period
was a time of widespread migrations of peoples, notably the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and the Huns, within or into Europe
Europe
in the middle of the first millennium AD
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Scandinavia
Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
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Pomeranians (Slavic Tribe)
The Pomeranians (German: Pomoranen; Kashubian: Pòmòrzónie; Polish: Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
between the mouths of the Oder
Oder
and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania
Farther Pomerania
and Pomerelia). They spoke the Pomeranian language
Pomeranian language
belonging to the Lechitic branch of the West Slavic language family.Several ethnic groups of West Slavs
West Slavs
between 9th–10th centuriesWithout land
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