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Wends
WENDS (Old English : Winedas, Old Norse : Vindr, German : Wenden, Winden, Danish : vendere, Swedish : vender, Polish : Wendowie) is a historical name for West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to Western Slavs living within the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, though not always. Mieszko I , the first historical ruler of Poland
Poland
, also appeared as "Dagome, King of the Wends
Wends
" (Old Norse: Vindakonungr). The name has possibly survived in Finnic languages (Finnish : Venäjä, Estonian : Vene, Karelian : Veneä) denoting Russia
Russia

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Veleti
The VELETI (German : Wieleten; Polish : Wieleci) or WILZI(ANS) (also Wiltzes; German: Wilzen) were a group of medieval Lechitic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany
Germany
; see Polabian Slavs . In common with other Slavic groups between the Elbe
Elbe
and Oder Rivers, they were often described by Germanic sources as Wends . In the late 10th century, they were continued by the Lutici . In Einhard 's Vita Karoli Magni , the Wilzi are said to refer to themselves as Welatabians
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Vend (letter)
VEND (Ꝩ, ꝩ) is a letter of Old Norse
Old Norse
. It was used to represent the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/. It was related to and probably derived from the Old English letter Wynn
Wynn
( Runic alphabet
Runic alphabet
ᚹ and later the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
(Ƿ ƿ), except that the bowl was open on the top, not being connected to the stem, which made it somewhat resemble a letter Y . It was eventually replaced with v or u for most writings
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Vends
The VENDS (Latvian : Vendi, Russian : Венды) were a small tribe that lived in the 12th to 16th centuries in the area around the town of Wenden (now Cēsis
Cēsis
) in present-day north-central Latvia
Latvia
. According to Livonian Chronicle of Henry
Livonian Chronicle of Henry
prior to their arrival in the area of Wenden in the 12th century, the Vends were settled in Ventava county (Latin : Wynda) by the Venta River near the present city of Ventspils
Ventspils
in western Latvia. Their proximity to more numerous Finnic and Baltic tribes inclined the Vends to ally with the German crusaders , who began building a stone castle near the older Vendian wooden fortress in 1207. The castle of Wenden later became the residence of the Master of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order

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National Personification
A NATIONAL PERSONIFICATION is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people. It may appear in editorial cartoons and propaganda . Some early personifications in the Western world tended to be national manifestations of the majestic wisdom and war goddess Minerva / Athena
Athena
, and often took the Latin
Latin
name of the ancient Roman province . Examples of this type include Britannia , Germania , Hibernia , Helvetia and Polonia . Examples of personifications of the Goddess of Liberty include Marianne
Marianne
, the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(_Liberty Enlightening the World_), and many examples of United States
United States
coinage. Examples of representations of the everyman or citizenry—rather than of the nation itself—are Deutscher Michel and John Bull
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Sclavinia
The SCLAVENI (in Latin ) or صقالبة, SAQāLIBA (in Arabic ) or SKLAVENOI (in Greek ) were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans
Balkans
in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs
Slavs
. They were mentioned by early Byzantine chroniclers as barbarians having appeared at the Byzantine borders along with the Antes , another Slavic group. The Sclaveni
Sclaveni
were differentiated from the Antes (East Slavs
Slavs
) and Wends (West Slavs
Slavs
), however, described as kin. Eventually, most South Slavic tribes accepted Byzantine suzerainty, and came under Byzantine cultural influence. Sclaveni
Sclaveni
and Sklavinia ("Slav land") were both widely used as a general catch-all terms until the emergence of separate tribal names by the 10th century
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Germania
_GERMANIA_ (/dʒərˈmeɪniə/ ) was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples . It extended from the Danube in the south to the Baltic Sea , and from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula . The Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire , Germania Inferior to the north (present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and western Germany), and Germania Superior to the south (Switzerland, southwestern Germany, and eastern France). Germania was inhabited mostly by Germanic tribes, but also Celts , early Slavs , Balts and Scythians . The population mix changed over time by assimilation, and especially by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area
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Gallia
GAUL ( Latin
Latin
: GALLIA) was a region of Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France
France
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, Belgium
Belgium
, most of Switzerland
Switzerland
, Northern Italy , as well as the parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
on the west bank of the Rhine
Rhine
. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
OTTO III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty , Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu
Theophanu
. Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in 983 at the age of three, shortly after his father's death in southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire and the Emirate of Sicily . Though the nominal ruler of Germany, Otto III's minor status ensured his various regents held power over the Empire. His cousin Henry II, Duke of Bavaria , initially claimed regency over the young king and attempted to seize the throne for himself in 984. When his rebellion failed to gain the support of Germany's aristocracy, Henry II was forced to abandon his claims to the throne and to allow Otto III's mother Theophanu
Theophanu
to serve as regent until her death in 991
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Gospels Of Otto III
The GOSPELS OF OTTO III ( Munich
Munich
, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
, Clm 4453) is a late 10th or early 11th century illuminated Gospel Book
Gospel Book
. The manuscript is a major example of Ottonian illumination . It was produced at Reichenau Abbey
Reichenau Abbey
in the workshop headed by the monk Liuthar
Liuthar
for Otto III
Otto III
, the son of Otto II
Otto II
, who died when he was three, and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Princess Theophanu
Theophanu
. The manuscript has 276 folios which measure 334mm by 242mm, containing the Vulgate
Vulgate
versions of the four gospels plus prefatory matter including the Eusebian canon tables
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Limes Saxoniae
The LIMES SAXONIAE ( Latin
Latin
for "Limit of Saxony "), also known as the LIMES SAXONICUS or SACHSENWALL ("Saxon Dyke"), was an unfortified limes or border between the Saxons
Saxons
and the Slavic Obotrites
Obotrites
, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
. Limes Saxoniae marker near Hornbek After Charlemagne had removed Saxons
Saxons
from some of their lands and given it to the Obotrites
Obotrites
(who were allies of Charlemagne), he finally managed to conquer the Saxons
Saxons
in the Saxon Wars
Saxon Wars
. In 811 he signed the Treaty of Heiligen with the neighbouring Danes and may at the same time have reached a border agreement with the Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
in the east
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Saxons
The SAXONS (Latin : Saxones, Old English
Old English
: Seaxe, Old Saxon
Old Saxon
: Sahson, Low German : Sassen, German : Sachsen, Dutch : Saksen, Welsh : Saeson) were a group of Germanic tribes first mentioned as living near the North Sea
North Sea
coast of what is now Germany
Germany
( Old Saxony ), in the late Roman empire . They were soon mentioned as raiding and settling in many North Sea
North Sea
areas, as well as pushing south inland towards the Franks
Franks
. Significant numbers settled in large parts of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and formed part of the merged group of Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
who eventually organised the first united Kingdom of England
England

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Obotrites
The OBOTRITES (Latin : Obotriti) or OBODRITES (Polish : Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled ABODRITES (German : Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Holstein
Holstein
in northern Germany
Germany
(see Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
). For decades, they were allies of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in his wars against the Germanic Saxons
Saxons
and the Slavic Veleti
Veleti
. The Obotrites under Prince Thrasco defeated the Saxons
Saxons
in the Battle of Bornhöved (798)
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Schleswig-Holstein
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN (German: ; Danish : _Slesvig-Holsten_) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany , comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig . Its capital city is Kiel ; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg . Also known in more dated English as SLESWICK-HOLSATIA, the Danish name is _Slesvig-Holsten,_ the Low German name is _Sleswig-Holsteen,_ and the North Frisian name is _Slaswik-Holstiinj._ Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig- Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark
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Aestui
The AESTI (also AESTII or AESTS) were an ancient people first described by the Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
in his treatise Germania (circa 98 CE). According to Tacitus, AESTUI, the land of the Aesti, was located somewhere east of the Suiones (Swedes) and west of the Sitones
Sitones
(possibly the Kvens ), on the Suebian (Baltic) Sea . This and other evidence suggests that Aestui was in or near the present-day Russian enclave of Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(previously East Prussia
East Prussia
). Despite the phonological similarity between Aestui and the modern ethnonyms of Estonia
Estonia
, especially in popular etymologies , the two geographical areas are not contiguous and there are few, if any, direct historical links between them
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