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Weir
A WEIR /ˈwɪər/ is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of the water and usually results in a change in the vertical height of the river level. There are many designs of weir, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Function * 2.1 Flow measurement * 2.2 Control of invasive species * 2.3 Watermills * 2.4 Flood control and altering river conditions * 3 Issues * 3.1 Ecology * 3.2 Fish migration * 3.3 Safety * 4 Common types * 4.1 Broad-crested * 4.2 Compound * 4.3 V-notch * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThere is no single definition as to what constitutes a weir and one English dictionary simply defines a weir as a small dam , likely originating from Middle English were, Old English wer, derivative of root of werian, meaning "to defend, dam"
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Hertfordshire
HERTFORDSHIRE (/ˈhɑːrtfərdʃɪər/ ( listen ) ; often abbreviated HERTS) is a county in southern England
England
, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the north-east, Essex
Essex
to the east, Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
to the west and Greater London to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England
England
region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 living in an area of 634 square miles (1,640 km2). Four towns have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents: Hemel Hempstead
Hemel Hempstead
, Stevenage
Stevenage
, Watford
Watford
and St Albans
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Siltation
SILTATION or SILTIFICATION is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay . It refers both to the increased concentration of suspended sediments, and to the increased accumulation (temporary or permanent) of fine sediments on bottoms where they are undesirable. Siltation
Siltation
is most often caused by soil erosion or sediment spill. Sometimes siltation is called sediment pollution, although that is an undesirable term since it is ambiguous, and can also be used to refer to a chemical contamination of sediments accumulated on the bottom, or pollutants bound to sediment particles. Siltation
Siltation
is the preferred term for being unambigiuous, even if not entirely stringent since it also includes other particle sizes than silt
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Sea Lamprey
The SEA LAMPREY (Petromyzon marinus) is a parasitic lamprey native to the Northern Hemisphere. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Ecology * 4 Physiology * 5 Genetics * 6 Invasive species
Invasive species
* 6.1 Efforts at control * 7 References * 8 External links DESCRIPTION For a broader coverage related to general lamprey morphology, see Lamprey
Lamprey
. The sea lamprey has an eel-like body without paired fins. Its mouth is jawless, round and sucker-like, and as wide or wider than the head; sharp teeth are arranged in many consecutive circular rows. There are 7 branchial openings behind the eye. They are olive or brown-yellow on the dorsal and lateral part of the body, with some black marblings, with lighter coloration on the belly. Adults can reach a length of up to 120 cm (47 in) and a body weight up to 2.3 kg (5.1 lb)
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Great Lakes
The GREAT LAKES (French : les Grands-Lacs), also called the LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES and the GREAT LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America
North America
, on the Canada–United States border , which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River . Consisting of Lakes Superior , Michigan
Michigan
, Huron (or Michigan–Huron ), Erie , and Ontario
Ontario
, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, and second largest by total volume containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3)
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Salmonids
SALMONIDAE is a family of ray-finned fish , the only living family currently placed in the order SALMONIFORMES. It includes salmon , trout , chars , freshwater whitefishes , and graylings , which collectively are known as the SALMONIDS. The Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
and trout of the genus Salmo give the family and order their names. Salmonids have a relatively primitive appearance among the teleost fish, with the pelvic fins being placed far back, and an adipose fin towards the rear of the back. They are slender fish, with rounded scales and forked tails. Their mouths contain a single row of sharp teeth. Although the smallest species is just 13 cm (5.1 in) long as an adult, most are much larger, with the largest reaching 2 m (6.6 ft). All salmonids spawn in fresh water, but in many cases, the fish spend most of their lives at sea, returning to the rivers only to reproduce. This lifecycle is described as anadromous
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Silt
SILT is granular material of a size between sand and clay , whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar . Silt
Silt
may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides . Silt
Silt
has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens. CONTENTS * 1 Sources * 2 Grain size criteria * 3 Environmental impacts * 4 Culture * 5 See also * 6 References SOURCES Silt
Silt
is created by a variety of physical processes capable of splitting the generally sand-sized quartz crystals of primary rocks by exploiting deficiencies in their lattice
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Warkworth, New Zealand
WARKWORTH is a town on the Northland Peninsula in the upper North Island of New Zealand. It is in the northern part of the Auckland Region . It is located on State Highway 1 , 64 km north of Auckland and 98 km south of Whangarei
Whangarei
, and is at the head of Mahurangi Harbour. The population was 3,270 according to the 2006 census , an increase of 15.7 percent over the preceding five years. The Warkworth district is known as the Kowhai Coast, named after the native kowhai tree, and the town's annual Kowhai Festival is one of the largest community festivals in the country, running for around a week in spring. New Zealand's main satellite communications ground station is located 5 km south of Warkworth
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Meuse (river)
The MEUSE (/ˈmjuːz/ ; French : la Meuse
Meuse
IPA: ; Walloon : Mouze IPA: ) or MAAS (Dutch : Maas; IPA: , Limburgish
Limburgish
: Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France
France
and flowing through Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
before draining into the North Sea
North Sea
. It has a total length of 925 km (575 mi)
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Dorset
DORSET /ˈdɔːrsᵻt/ (or archaically , DORSETSHIRE) is a county in South West England
England
on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the non-metropolitan county , which is governed by Dorset County Council , and the unitary authority areas of Poole and Bournemouth
Bournemouth
. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres (1,024 sq mi), Dorset
Dorset
borders Devon
Devon
to the west, Somerset
Somerset
to the north-west, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
to the north-east, and Hampshire to the east. The county town is Dorchester which is in the south
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Sturminster Newton
STURMINSTER NEWTON /ˌstɜːrmɪnstər ˈnjuːtən/ is a town and civil parish in the Blackmore Vale
Blackmore Vale
area of Dorset
Dorset
, England. It is situated on a low limestone ridge in a meander of the River Stour . The town is at the centre of a large dairy agriculture region, around which the town's economy is built. The larger part of the town (Sturminster) lies on the north side of the river, and includes most shops and services, whilst to the south is the smaller Newton. Between these two areas is a wide flood plain . The town was the home of poet and author William Barnes , and, for part of his life, Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy
. The town has 43 shops, a primary and secondary school, and a school and college catering for children with special educational needs . In the 2011 census the town's civil parish had a population of 4,292. A market is held in the town on Mondays
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (République française ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France
France
is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris
Paris
, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Hydraulic Head
HYDRAULIC HEAD or PIEZOMETRIC HEAD is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum . It is usually measured as a liquid surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or bottom) of a piezometer . In an aquifer , it can be calculated from the depth to water in a piezometric well (a specialized water well ), and given information of the piezometer's elevation and screen depth. Hydraulic head
Hydraulic head
can similarly be measured in a column of water using a standpipe piezometer by measuring the height of the water surface in the tube relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head can be used to determine a hydraulic gradient between two or more points
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Crest (hydrology)
In hydrology , CREST is the highest level above a certain point (the datum point, or reference point) that a river will reach in a certain amount of time. This term is usually limited to a flooding event and from ground level . This article about geography terminology is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This hydrology article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra
Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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