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Weald
The Weald
The Weald
/ˈwiːld/ is an area of South East England
South East England
between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs. It crosses the counties of Sussex, Hampshire, Kent
Kent
and Surrey
Surrey
and has three separate parts: the sandstone "High Weald" in the centre; the clay "Low Weald" periphery; and the Greensand Ridge, which stretches around the north and west of the Weald
Weald
and includes its highest points. The Weald
The Weald
once was covered with forest, and its name, Old English in origin, signifies "woodland"
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Anglo-Saxon
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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Rock (geology)
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Clay
Clay
Clay
is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO4), metal oxides (Al2O3 , MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing.[1][2][3] Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy
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Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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West Sexaon Dialect (Old English)
Wessex
Wessex
(/ˈwɛsɪks/; Old English: Westseaxna rīce [westsæɑksnɑ riːt͡ʃe], "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
believed that Wessex
Wessex
was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, but this may be a legend. The two main sources for the history of Wessex
Wessex
are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex
Wessex
became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla
Cædwalla
later conquered Sussex, Kent
Kent
and the Isle of Wight
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Weathering
Weathering
Weathering
is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms. Weathering
Weathering
occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations. Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure
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Anglo-Saxons
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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Escarpment
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively leveled areas having differing elevations. Usually escarpment is used interchangeably with scarp. Some sources differentiate the two terms, however, where escarpment refers to the margin between two landforms, while scarp is synonymous with a cliff or steep slope.[1][2] The surface of the steep slope is called a scarp face
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Chalk
Chalk
Chalk
( /ˈtʃɔːk/) is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite
Calcite
is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint
Flint
(a type of chert) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction
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Upper Jurassic
The Late Jurassic
Jurassic
is the third epoch of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic
Jurassic
strata.[2] In European lithostratigraphy, the name "malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic
Jurassic
age
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William Lambarde
William Lambarde
William Lambarde
(18 October 1536 – 19 August 1601) was an English antiquarian, writer on legal subjects, and politician. He is particularly remembered as the author of A Perambulation of Kent (1576), the first English county history; Eirenarcha (1581), a widely read manual on the office and role of justice of the peace; and Archeion (completed c.1591, though not published until 1635), a discourse that sought to trace the Anglo-Saxon roots of English common law, prerogative and government.Contents1 Early life, education and career 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksEarly life, education and career[edit] William Lambarde
William Lambarde
was born in London on 18 October 1536. His father John Lambarde was a draper who served three times as Master of the Drapers' Company, an alderman and a sheriff of London
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Anderida
Anderitum
Anderitum
(also Anderida or Anderidos) was a Saxon Shore
Saxon Shore
fort in the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia. Its remains are located at grid reference TQ645047 in eastern Pevensey
Pevensey
in the English county of East Sussex
East Sussex
and the site was later converted into a medieval castle known as Pevensey Castle.Contents1 Naming 2 Location 3 Dating 4 Construction 5 Garrison 6 Abandonment and post-Roman use 7 Later castle 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksNaming[edit] The fort is named as Anderitum, apparently meaning "great ford", in the Notitia Dignitatum, a list of Roman "dignities" (i.e. public offices) as of the 5th century. (An alternative spelling of Anderida or Anderita has also been proposed, but is disfavoured.)[1] Location[edit] The fort was built on what was then peninsula of land rising above the coastal marshes
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