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Watt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a unit of power . In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second , and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . In dimensional analysis it is described by M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio
Radio
transmission * 6 Distinction between watts and watt-hours * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against a constant opposing force of one newton , the rate at which work is done is 1 watt
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Eeg
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain . It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp , although invasive electrodes are sometimes used such as in electrocorticography . EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current within the neurons of the brain . In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a period of time, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related potentials or on the spectral content of EEG. The former investigates potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or button press. The latter analyses the type of neural oscillations (popularly called "brain waves") that can be observed in EEG signals in the frequency domain
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Electrical Work
ELECTRICAL WORK is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field . The equation for 'electrical' work is equivalent to that of 'mechanical' work: W = Q a b E d r = Q a b F E Q d r = a b F E d r {displaystyle W=Qint _{a}^{b}mathbf {E} cdot ,dmathbf {r} =Qint _{a}^{b}{frac {mathbf {F_{E}} }{Q}}cdot ,dmathbf {r} =int _{a}^{b}mathbf {F_{E}} cdot ,dmathbf {r} } where Q is the charge of the particle, q, the unit charge E is the electric field , which at a location is the force at that location divided by a unit ('test') charge FE is the Coulomb (electric) force r is the displacement {displaystyle cdot } is the dot product The electrical work per unit of charge, when moving a negligible test charge between two points, is defined as the voltage between those points
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Electrocardiography
ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY (ECG or EKG ) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle 's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing and repolarizing during each heartbeat . It is a very commonly performed cardiology test. In a conventional 12-lead ECG, 10 electrodes are placed on the patient's limbs and on the surface of the chest. The overall magnitude of the heart's electrical potential is then measured from 12 different angles ("leads") and is recorded over a period of time (usually 10 seconds). In this way, the overall magnitude and direction of the heart's electrical depolarization is captured at each moment throughout the cardiac cycle. The graph of voltage versus time produced by this noninvasive medical procedure is referred to as an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
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Meter Per Second
METRE PER SECOND ( American English
American English
: METER PER SECOND) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar ) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds . The SI unit symbols are m·s−1, m s−1, m/s, or m/s, sometimes (unofficially) abbreviated as "mps". Where metres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in kilometres per second, where 1 km/s is 1000 metres per second, sometimes unofficially abbreviated as "kps"
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Energy Transformation
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION, also termed ENERGY CONVERSION, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another. In physics , ENERGY is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform many actions—some as simple as lifting or warming an object. In addition to being convertible, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy
Energy
in many of its forms may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating, refrigeration, lighting , or performing mechanical work to operate machines. For example, in order to heat your home, your furnace can burn fuel, whose chemical potential energy is thus converted into thermal energy, which is then transferred to your home's air in order to raise its temperature
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Medical Instrument
A MEDICAL DEVICE is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of: * Diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment, or alleviation of disease; * Diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation, or compensation for an injury or handicap; * Investigation, replacement, or modification of the anatomy or of a physiological process; * Control of conception; and which does not achieve its principal intended action in or on the human body by pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic means, but which may be assisted in its function by such meansMedical devices vary according to their intended use and indications. Examples range from simple devices such as tongue depressors , medic
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Potential Difference
VOLTAGE, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC PRESSURE or ELECTRIC TENSION (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm\'s or Kirchhoff\'s circuit laws ) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge . The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test charge between two points. This is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb ). Voltage
Voltage
can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field , by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points
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Hydroelectricity
HYDROELECTRICITY is electricity produced from hydropower . In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity , and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China
China
is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Electrical Resistance
The ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor. The inverse quantity is ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE, and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction . The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω ), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S). An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. All materials show some resistance, except for superconductors , which have a resistance of zero
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Ohm's Law
OHM\'S LAW states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance , one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: I = V R , {displaystyle I={frac {V}{R}},} where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes , V is the voltage measured across the conductor in units of volts , and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms . More specifically, Ohm's law
Ohm's law
states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current. The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm
Ohm
, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire
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Quantification (science)
In mathematics and empirical science , QUANTIFICATION (or QUANTITATION) is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities . Quantification in this sense is fundamental to the scientific method . CONTENTS * 1 Natural science
Natural science
* 2 Social sciences
Social sciences
* 3 Hard versus soft science * 4 See also * 5 References NATURAL SCIENCESome measure of the undisputed general importance of quantification in the natural sciences can be gleaned from the following comments: * "these are mere facts, but they are quantitative facts and the basis of science." * It seems to be held as universally true that "the foundation of quantification is measurement." * There is little doubt that "quantification provided a basis for the objectivity of science." * In ancient times, "musicians and artists ..
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Dimensional Analysis
In engineering and science , DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length , mass , time , and electric charge ) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms vs. grams) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed. Converting from one dimensional unit to another is often somewhat complex. Dimensional analysis, or more specifically the FACTOR-LABEL METHOD, also known as the UNIT-FACTOR METHOD, is a widely used technique for such conversions using the rules of algebra . The concept of PHYSICAL DIMENSION was introduced by Joseph Fourier in 1822
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Laser Pointer
A LASER POINTER or LASER PEN is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light. Power is restricted in most jurisdictions not to exceed 5 mW. The small width of the beam and low power of typical laser pointers make the beam itself invisible in a reasonably clean atmosphere, only showing a point of light when striking an opaque surface. Some higher-powered laser pointers project a visible beam via scattering from dust particles or water droplets along the beam path. Higher-power and higher-frequency green or blue lasers may produce a beam visible even in clean air because of Rayleigh scattering from air molecules, especially when viewed in moderately-to-dimly lit conditions
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Kilowatt, California
KILOWATT is an unincorporated community in Kern County , California
California
. It is located on the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
(formerly Southern Pacific Railroad ) 1 mile (1.6 km) east of Buttonwillow , at an elevation of 279 feet (85 m). Kilowatt has been noted for its unusual place name . REFERENCES * ^ A B C U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kilowatt, California * ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 1056. ISBN 1-884995-14-4 . * ^ Thompson, George E. (1 July 2009). You Live Where?: Interesting and Unusual Facts about where We Live. iUniverse. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4401-3421-0
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