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Water Supply And Sanitation In Senegal
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN SENEGAL is characterized by a relatively high level of access compared to the average of Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the interesting features is a public-private partnership (PPP) that has been operating in Senegal
Senegal
since 1996, with Senegalaise des Eaux (SDE), a subsidiary of Saur International, as the private partner. It does not own the water system but manages it on a 10-year lease contract with the Senegalese government. Between 1996 and 2014, water sales doubled to 131 million cubic meters per year and the number of household connections increased by 165% to more than 638,000. According to the World Bank
World Bank
, "the Senegal
Senegal
case is regarded as a model of public-private partnership in sub-Saharan Africa"
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Léopold Senghor
LéOPOLD SéDAR SENGHOR (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet , politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal
Senegal
(1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist , he was associated with the Négritude movement. He was the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc party. Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française . He is regarded by many as one of the most important African intellectuals of the 20th century
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Compagnie Générale Des Eaux
VIVENDI SA (formerly VIVENDI UNIVERSAL SA) is a French multinational mass media conglomerate headquartered in Paris
Paris
. The company has activities in music , television , film , video games , telecommunications , tickets and video hosting service . CONTENTS* 1 Activities * 1.1 Television
Television
and film: Canal+ Group * 1.2 Video games: Ubisoft
Ubisoft
& Gameloft
Gameloft
* 1.3 Vivendi
Vivendi
Village * 1.4 Video hosting service: Dailymotion
Dailymotion
* 2 History * 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Creation of "Vivendi" * 2.3 Corporate loss * 2.4 Further acquisitions, mergers and divestments * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ACTIVITIES Main article: List of assets owned by Vivendi Vivendi
Vivendi
is a company primarily focused on digital entertainment
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African Socialism
AFRICAN SOCIALISM is a belief in sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as distinct from classical socialism . Many African politicians of the 1950s and 1960s professed their support for African socialism, although definitions and interpretations of this term varied considerably. This is because African socialism
African socialism
has not been the product of one single thinker. One example of a definition of African socialism
African socialism
was phrased as a metaphor by de Graft Johnson, from the University of Ghana, in 1962: the African extended-family system writ large
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Abdou Diouf
ABDOU DIOUF (/ˈɑːbduː ˈdjuːf/ ( listen ) AHB-doo DEWF ; Serer : Abdu Juuf; born September 7, 1935 ) is a Senegalese politician who was the second President of Senegal
Senegal
from 1981 to 2000. Diouf is notable both for coming to power by peaceful succession, and leaving willingly after losing the 2000 presidential election to Abdoulaye Wade . He was also the second Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie from January 2003 to December 2014. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Political career * 3 Presidency * 3.1 1983 and 1988 elections * 3.2 Senegambia
Senegambia
* 3.3 Response to AIDS
AIDS
* 3.4 1993 and 2000 elections * 4 Socialist Party leadership * 5 International organizations * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEDiouf was born in Louga
Louga
, Senegal, the child of an Halpulaar mother and a Serere father
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French Development Agency
FRENCH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government. It works to fight poverty and promote sustainable development. This public institution is active in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, the Caribbean
Caribbean
and the French overseas territories where it finances and supports projects that improve living conditions for populations, promote economic growth and protect the planet. In 2014, AFD earmarked EUR 8.1bn to finance projects in developing countries and for the French overseas territories, a commitment up by 4% compared to 2013. Its headquarters is located in Paris. Its teams are based in Paris, Marseille and in a network of 72 agencies and representations abroad and in the French overseas territories
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NGO
A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) is a nonprofit organization that is independent of governments and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II
World War II
, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development , particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs
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FCFA
The CFA FRANC (in French : franc CFA , or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in parts of West and Central African countries which are guaranteed by the French treasury. The two CFA franc currencies are the West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
and the Central African CFA franc . Although theoretically separate, the two CFA franc currencies are effectively interchangeable. The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc
Central African CFA franc
, whereas XOF for the West African CFA franc . Both CFA francs have a fixed exchange rate to the euro : 100 CFA francs = 1 former French (nouveau) franc = 0.152449 euro; or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs exactly. Although Central African CFA francs and West African CFA francs have always been at parity and have therefore always had the same monetary value against other currencies, they are in principle separate currencies
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Private Equity
In finance , PRIVATE EQUITY is a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisting of equity securities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange . A private equity investment will generally be made by a private equity firm , a venture capital firm or an angel investor . Each of these categories of investors has its own set of goals, preferences and investment strategies; however, all provide working capital to a target company to nurture expansion, new-product development, or restructuring of the company’s operations, management, or ownership. Bloomberg Businessweek
Bloomberg Businessweek
has called private equity a rebranding of leveraged-buyout firms after the 1980s. Common investment strategies in private equity include: leveraged buyouts , venture capital , growth capital , distressed investments and mezzanine capital
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Emerging Capital Partners
EMERGING CAPITAL PARTNERS (ECP) is a Pan-African private equity firm that has raised over US$2 billion through funds and co-investment vehicles for growth capital investing in Africa
Africa
. Founded in 2000 under the leadership of Thomas Gibian, Hurley Doddy, Vincent Le Guennou, and Carolyn Campbell, ECP has over 15 years of investing experience on the continent and is one of the largest and longest-established private equity fund managers focused on Africa, with an investment team operating in six offices on the continent. In May 2007, when ECP closed its second fund with capital commitments of over US$520 million, the company became the first private equity group to raise over $1 billion for investment in Africa. ECP has made over 60 investments covering more than 40 African countries and has realized nearly 40 full exits
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Vivendi Environnement
VEOLIA ENVIRONNEMENT S.A., branded as VEOLIA, is a French transnational company with activities in four main service and utility areas traditionally managed by public authorities – water management , waste management , transport and energy services. In 2012, Veolia employed 318,376 employees in 48 countries. Its revenue in that year was recorded at €29.4 billion. It is quoted on Euronext
Euronext
Paris . It is headquartered in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. Between 2000 and 2003 the company was known as Vivendi
Vivendi
Environnement, having been spun off from the Vivendi
Vivendi
conglomerate , most of the rest of which became Vivendi. Prior to 1998 Vivendi
Vivendi
was known as Compagnie Générale des Eaux . In 2014, following a major restructuring, the company adopted the unaccompanied Veolia
Veolia
name across its businesses
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Suez
SUEZ (Arabic : السويس‎‎ as-Suways ; Egyptian Arabic : ‎‎ es-Sewēs, el-Sewēs pronounced ) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt
Egypt
, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(a branch of the Red Sea
Red Sea
), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
, having the same boundaries as Suez
Suez
governorate . It has three harbors, Adabya , Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq , and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area . Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo
Cairo
, Port Said
Port Said
, and Ismailia
Ismailia
. Suez
Suez
has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo
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Abdoulaye Wade
ABDOULAYE WADE (born 29 May 1926 ) is a Senegalese politician who was President of Senegal
Senegal
from 2000 to 2012. He is also the Secretary-General of the Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS) and has led the party since it was founded in 1974. A long-time opposition leader, he ran for President four times, beginning in 1978, before he was elected in 2000. He won re-election in 2007 with a majority in the first round, but in 2012 he was defeated in a controversial bid for a third term
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ISO 9001
The ISO
ISO
9000 family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or program. ISO
ISO
9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems, including the seven quality management principles upon which the family of standards is based. ISO
ISO
9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard must fulfill. Third-party certification bodies provide independent confirmation that organizations meet the requirements of ISO
ISO
9001
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West African Development Bank
The WEST AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK - WADB (fr. BANQUE OUEST AFRICAINE DE DéVELOPPEMENT - BOAD / pt. BANCO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DO OESTE AFRICANO - BDOA) is an international Multilateral Development Bank established in 1973 to serve the nations of Francophone
Francophone