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Water Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Soil Salinity Control
Soil salinity
Soil salinity
control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty (saline) soils. Soil
Soil
reclamation is also called soil improvement, rehabilitation, remediation, recuperation, or amelioration. The primary man-made cause of salinization is irrigation. River
River
water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts, which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated. The primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit 10-20% of the irrigation water to leach the soil,that will be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system
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Vacuum Distillation
Vacuum distillation
Vacuum distillation
is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure. As with distillation, this technique separates compounds based on differences in boiling points. This technique is used when the boiling point of the desired compound is difficult to achieve or will cause the compound to decompose. A reduced pressure decreases the boiling point of compounds
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Fresh Water
Fresh water
Fresh water
(or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water
Fresh water
is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment
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Wastewater
Wastewater
Wastewater
(or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater
Wastewater
is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration".[1] Therefore, wastewater is a byproduct of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source. Types of wastewater include: domestic wastewater from households, municipal wastewater from communities (also called sewage) or industrial wastewater from industrial activities. Wastewater
Wastewater
can contain physical, chemical and biological pollutants. Households may produce wastewater from flush toilets, sinks, dishwashers, washing machines, bath tubs, and showers
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Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater
is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells
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Water Conservation
Water
Water
conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.[1] Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success.[2] The goals of water conservation efforts include:Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation
Energy conservation
as water pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy
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Water Scarcity
Water scarcity
Water scarcity
is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand
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Seawater Desalination In Australia
Australia
Australia
is the driest inhabitable continent on Earth and its installed desalination capacity comprises around 1% of the world’s total.[citation needed] Until a few decades ago, Australia
Australia
met its demands for water by drawing freshwater from dams and water catchments. As a result of the water supply crisis during the severe 1997–2009 drought, state governments began building desalination plants that purify seawater using reverse osmosis technology. Australia's first desalination plant dates from 1903 and several more operated during the 20th century.[citation needed] The first modern large-scale desalination plant was the Kwinana plant in Perth, completed in November 2006 and over 30 plants are currently operating across the country
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Limescale
Limescale
Limescale
is the hard, off-white, chalky deposit found in kettles, hot-water boilers and the inside of inadequately maintained hot-water central heating systems. It is also often found as a similar deposit on the inner surface of old pipe and other surfaces where "hard water" has evaporated. In addition to being unsightly and hard to clean, limescale seriously impairs the operation or damages various components.[1] The type found deposited on the heating elements of water heaters has a main component of calcium carbonate. Hard water
Hard water
contains calcium (and often magnesium) bicarbonate or similar ions. Calcium
Calcium
salts, such as calcium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate are both more soluble in hot water than cold water. Thus, heating water does not cause calcium carbonate to precipitate per se
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Ras Al-Khair Power And Desalination Plant
The Ras Al-Khair
Ras Al-Khair
Power and Desalination
Desalination
Plant is a power and desalination plant located in Ras Al-Khair
Ras Al-Khair
on the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. It is operated by the Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia
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Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750State of Kuwait دولة الكويت (Arabic) Dawlat al-KuwaitFlagEmblemAnthem: "Al-Nasheed Al-Watani" "National Anthem"Location of  Kuwait  (green)Capital and largest city Kuwait
Kuwait
City 29°22′N 47°58′E / 29.367°N 47.967°E / 29.367; 47.967Official languages ArabicEthnic groups60% Arab
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Ship
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, shape, load capacity, and tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have also served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth.[1] Ship transport
Ship transport
is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling almost 1.8 billion dead weight tons
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Flash Evaporation
Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum.[1][2] If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example, liquid propane or liquid ammonia), a part of the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor and the residual liquid are cooled to the saturation temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure
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Vapor-compression Evaporation
Vapor-compression evaporation
Vapor-compression evaporation
is the evaporation method by which a blower, compressor or jet ejector is used to compress, and thus, increase the pressure of the vapor produced. Since the pressure increase of the vapor also generates an increase in the condensation temperature, the same vapor can serve as the heating medium for its "mother" liquid or solution being concentrated, from which the vapor was generated to begin with. If no compression was provided, the vapor would be at the same temperature as the boiling liquid/solution, and no heat transfer could take place. It is also sometimes called vapor compression distillation (VCD). If compression is performed by a mechanically driven compressor or blower, this evaporation process is usually referred to as MVR (mechanical vapor recompression)
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