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Water Desalination
DESALINATION is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water . More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination , which is an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation . One by-product of desalination is salt . Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines . Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater , it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources. Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater , water recycling and water conservation . However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Ras Al-Khair Power And Desalination Plant
The RAS AL-KHAIR POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT is a power and desalination plant located in Ras Al-Khair
Ras Al-Khair
on the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. It is operated by the Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia. The plant began operating in April of 2014 and, as of January 2017 , is the world's largest hybrid water desalination plant. The project includes a power plant capable of producing 2400 MW of electricity. In 2015, it won the Global Water Awards " Desalination
Desalination
Plant of the Year" award. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYConstruction of the plant began in 2011. Though originally slated to begin producing freshwater by the end of 2013, the first freshwater produced from the plant was in early 2015. Full commercial operation of the plant was achieved in March 2016
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Seawater Desalination In Australia
Australia
Australia
is the driest inhabitable continent on Earth and its installed desalination capacity is around 1% of the total world’s total. Until a few decades ago, Australia
Australia
met its demands for water by drawing freshwater from dams and water catchments . As a result of the water supply crisis during the severe 1997–2009 drought state governments began building desalination plants that purify seawater using reverse osmosis technology. Although the Australia's first desalination plant dates from 1903 and several more operated during the 20th century, the first modern large-scale desalination plant was the Kwinana plant in Perth, completed in November 2006. Over 30 plants are currently operating across the country. Many plants are utilizing nearby wind or wave farms to use renewable energy and reduce operating costs, and solar powered desalination units are used for remote communities
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Kuwait
Coordinates : 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750 State of Kuwait * دولة الكويت ( Arabic
Arabic
) * Dawlat al-Kuwait Flag Emblem ANTHEM: * " Al-Nasheed Al-Watani
Al-Nasheed Al-Watani

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Vacuum Distillation
VACUUM DISTILLATION is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure ) causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) (those with the lowest boiling points ). This distillation method works on the principle that boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds the ambient pressure. Vacuum distillation
Vacuum distillation
is used with or without heating the mixture
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Vapor Pressure
VAPOR PRESSURE or EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system . The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile . The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Water Conservation
WATER CONSERVATION includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water , to protect the hydrosphere , and to meet the current and future human demand . Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation . Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success. The goals of water conservation efforts include: * Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. * Energy conservation as water pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy
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Groundwater
GROUNDWATER is the water present beneath Earth
Earth
's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations . A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table . Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps , and can form oases or wetlands . Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural , municipal , and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells . The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology , also called groundwater hydrology
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Soil Salinity Control
SOIL SALINITY CONTROL relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim of soil salinity control is to prevent soil degradation by salination and reclaim already salty (saline) soils. Soil
Soil
reclamation is also called soil improvement, rehabilitation, remediation, recuperation, or amelioration. The primary man-made cause of salinization is irrigation . River water or groundwater used in irrigation contains salts, which remain behind in the soil after the water has evaporated . The primary method of controlling soil salinity is to permit 10-20% of the irrigation water to leach the soil,that will be drained and discharged through an appropriate drainage system . The salt concentration of the drainage water is normally 5 to 10 times higher than that of the irrigation water, thus salt export matches salt import and it will not accumulate
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Submarine
A SUBMARINE (or simply SUB) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible , which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots , as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub . The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat; by naval tradition , submarines are usually referred to as "boats " rather than as "ships ", regardless of their size (boat is usually reserved for seagoing vessels of relatively small size). Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small
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Fresh Water
FRESH WATER is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum , released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve. It was re-issued in 1974 under the title ANY WAY YOU WANT ME in a single sleeve with new artwork
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Wastewater
WASTEWATER, also written as WASTE WATER, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Wastewater can originate from a combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater , and from sewer inflow or infiltration. Municipal wastewater (also called sewage ) is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer , and treated at a wastewater treatment plant . Treated wastewater is discharged into receiving water via an effluent pipe. Wastewaters generated in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site wastewater systems . These typically comprise a septic tank , drain field , and optionally an on-site treatment unit . The management of wastewater belongs to the overarching term sanitation , just like the management of human excreta , solid waste and stormwater (drainage)
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Flash Evaporation
FLASH (OR PARTIAL) EVAPORATION is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations . If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum . If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example, liquid propane or liquid ammonia ), a part of the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor and the residual liquid are cooled to the saturation temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure. This is often referred to as "auto-refrigeration" and is the basis of most conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems
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Vapor-compression Evaporation
VAPOR-COMPRESSION EVAPORATION is the evaporation method by which a blower , compressor or jet ejector is used to compress , and thus, increase the pressure of the vapor produced. Since the pressure increase of the vapor also generates an increase in the condensation temperature, the same vapor can serve as the heating medium for its "mother" liquid or solution being concentrated, from which the vapor was generated to begin with. If no compression was provided, the vapor would be at the same temperature as the boiling liquid/solution, and no heat transfer could take place. It is also sometimes called vapor compression distillation (VCD). If compression is performed by a mechanically driven compressor or blower, this evaporation process is usually referred to as MVR (mechanical vapor recompression). In case of compression performed by high pressure motive steam ejectors , the process is usually called THERMOCOMPRESSION or STEAM COMPRESSION
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Phosphonates
PHOSPHONATES and PHOSPHONIC ACIDS are organophosphorus compounds containing C−PO(OH)2 or C−PO(OR)2 groups (where R = alkyl , aryl ). Phosphonic acids, typically handled as salts, are generally nonvolatile solids that are poorly soluble in organic solvents, but soluble in water and common alcohols. Many commercially important compounds are phosphonates, including glyphosate , the herbicide "Roundup", and ethephon , a widely used plant growth regulator. Bisphosphonates a