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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Mineral Hydration
Mineral
Mineral
hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a hydrate. In geological terms, the process of mineral hydration is known as retrograde alteration and is a process occurring in retrograde metamorphism. It commonly accompanies metasomatism and is often a feature of wall rock alteration around ore bodies. Hydration of minerals occurs generally in concert with hydrothermal circulation which may be driven by tectonic or igneous activity.Contents1 Processes 2 Examples of hydrated minerals 3 See also 4 ReferencesProcesses[edit] There are two main ways in which minerals hydrate
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Covalent Bond
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
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Fluid
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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Cooling
Cooling is the transfer of thermal energy via thermal radiation, heat conduction or convection. Examples include: Techniques[edit]Air conditioning Air cooling Computer cooling Cryogenics Conduction (heat) Evaporative cooling Free cooling Infrared solar cells Laser cooling Liquid cooling, several types Particle beam cooling Refrigeration Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) Thermal management of electronic devices and systems Thermoelectric cooling Magnetic refrigerationDevices[edit]Heat exchanger Radiators in automobiles Intercooler Coolant Cooling towers, as used in large industrial plants and power stations HVAC
HVAC
(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) Heat pipe Heat sink Vortex tube, as used in industrial spot cooling Pumpable ice technologyThis article needs additional or more specific categories
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Standard Ambient Temperature And Pressure
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), although these are not universally accepted standards
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Aerosols
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.[1] Aerosols can be natural or anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke.[1] The liquid or solid particles have diameter mostly smaller than 1 μm or so; larger particles with a significant settling speed make the mixture a suspension, but the distinction is not clear-cut. In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container
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Adsorption
Adsorption
Adsorption
is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.[1] This process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent. This process differs from absorption, in which a fluid (the absorbate) is dissolved by or permeates a liquid or solid (the absorbent), respectively.[2] Adsorption
Adsorption
is a surface-based process, while absorption involves the whole volume of the material. The term sorption encompasses both processes, while desorption is the reverse of it. Adsorption
Adsorption
is a surface phenomenon.IUPAC definitionIncrease in the concentration of a substance at the interface of a condensed and a liquid or gaseous layer owing to the operation of surface forces. Note 1: Adsorption
Adsorption
of proteins is of great importance when a material is in contact with blood or body fluids
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Chemical Substance
A chemical substance[1], also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[2] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.[3] Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose)
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Washing
Washing
Washing
is a method of cleaning, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. Washing
Washing
(and then rinsing) both body and clothing is an essential part of good hygiene and health. Often people use soaps and detergents to assist in the emulsification of oils and dirt particles so they can be washed away. The soap can be applied directly, or with the aid of a washcloth. People wash themselves, or bathe periodically. Infants, the sick, and people with disabilities are bathed by a caregiver, but those that can wash themselves often do so. Often a shower or a bathtub is used for washing. People bathe naked under most circumstances, and commonly do so in the privacy of their home. In Europe, some people use a bidet to wash their external genitalia and the anal region after using the toilet, in addition to using toilet paper.[citation needed] More frequent is washing of just the hands, e.g
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Atmosphere
An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere'[1][2]) is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays
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Commodity
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.[1] The price of a commodity good is typically determined as a function of its market as a whole: well-established physical commodities have actively traded spot and derivative markets
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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World Economy
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).[1] In some contexts, the two terms are distinguished: the "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely
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Drift Ice
Drift ice
Drift ice
is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).[1][2][3] Drift ice
Drift ice
is carried along by winds and sea currents, hence its name. When drift ice is driven together into a large single mass (>70% coverage), it is called pack ice.[1] Wind and currents can pile up that ice to form ridges up to several metres in height. These represent a challenge for icebreakers and offshore structures operating in cold oceans and seas. Drift ice
Drift ice
consists of ice floes, individual pieces of sea ice 20 metres (66 ft) or more across
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