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Wart
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.[1][3] They typically do not result in symptoms except when on the bottom of the feet where they may be painful.[3] While they usually occur on the hands and feet they can also affect other locations.[1] One or many warts may appear.[3] They are not cancerous.[3] Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of public showers, working with meat, eczema, and a low immune system.[1][3] The virus is believed to enter the body through skin that has been damaged slightly.[1] A number of types exist including: common warts, plantar warts, filiform warts, and genital warts.[3] Genital warts
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Sodium Hypochlorite
Sodium
Sodium
hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. It is composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a hypochlorite anion (ClO−); it may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. When dissolved in water it is commonly known as bleach or liquid bleach.[1] Sodium
Sodium
hypochlorite is practically and chemically distinct from chlorine, but may be converted into it by the addition of acid.[2] Sodium
Sodium
hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Hypochlorite
Hypochlorite
solutions liberate toxic gases such as chlorine when acidified or heated
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Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Hippocrates
of Kos
Kos
(Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles
Pericles
(Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine"[1][2] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine
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Savlon
Savlon
Savlon
is an antiseptic brand that contains two antiseptics, cetrimide and chlorhexidine gluconate.[1] These agents were discovered and first developed by Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries
(ICI).[2] On May 22, 1992 Johnson & Johnson announced that it has acquired Savlon
Savlon
OTC brands from ICI.[3] Savlon
Savlon
is now manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.[4] FMCG-to-tobacco-to-hotels giant ITC acquires Savlon
Savlon
along with Shower To Shower brands from Johnson & Johnson in India.[5] It is used as a 1–3 % solution for cleaning roadside accident wounds.[6] Savlon
Savlon
is commonly sold as an over-the-counter antiseptic cream. It is used in for cleansing and prevention of infection in skin lesions, including small cuts and blisters and minor burns, and is useful in first aid kits
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Ethanol
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C 2H 5OH. Its formula can be written also as CH 3−CH 2−OH or C 2H 5−OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol
Ethanol
is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol
Ethanol
is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries
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Stratum Granulosum
The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis.[1] Keratinocytes
Keratinocytes
migrating from the underlying stratum spinosum become known as granular cells in this layer. These cells contain keratohyalin granules, which are filled with histidine- and cysteine-rich proteins that appear to bind the keratin filaments together. Therefore, the main function of keratohyalin granules is to bind intermediate keratin filaments together.[2][3] At the transition between this layer and the stratum corneum, cells secrete lamellar bodies (containing lipids and proteins) into the extracellular space
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Stratum Spinosum
The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer/prickle cell layer)[1] is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale.[2] Their spiny (Latin, spinosum) appearance is due to shrinking of the microfilaments between desmosomes that occurs when stained with H&E. Keratinization
Keratinization
begins in the stratum spinosum.[3] This layer is composed of polyhedral keratinocytes. They have large pale-staining nuclei as they are active in synthesizing fibrilar proteins, known as cytokeratin, which build up within the cells aggregating together forming tonofibrils. The tonofibrils go on to form the desmosomes, which allow for strong connections to form between adjacent keratinocytes. Additional images[edit]Epidermis and dermis of human skinSection of epidermisSee also[edit] Spinous cell References[edit]^ McGrath, J.A.; Eady, R.A.; Pope, F.M. (2004). Rook's Textbook of Dermatology (Seventh Edition). Blackwell Publishing
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Stratum Corneum
The stratum corneum ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids.[2] The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale
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HPV-positive Oropharyngeal Cancer
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs. The pharynx is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across all of those species. In humans the pharynx is part of the digestive system and also of the conducting zone of the respiratory system. (The conducting zone also includes the nostrils of the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs.[1]) The pharynx makes up the part of the throat situated immediately behind the nasal cavity, behind the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
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Vaginal Cancer
Vaginal cancer
Vaginal cancer
is a malignant tumor that forms in the tissues of the vagina. Primary tumors are most usually squamous cell carcinomas. Primary tumors are rare, and more usually vaginal cancer occurs as a secondary tumor. Vaginal cancer
Vaginal cancer
occurs more often in women over age 50, but can occur at any age, even in infancy. It often can be cured if found and treated in early stages. Surgery alone or surgery combined with pelvic radiation is typically used to treat vaginal cancer. Children can be diagnosed with advanced vaginal cancer. They are treated by surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Vaginal cancer in children may recur
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Dysplasia
Dysplasia
Dysplasia
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).[1] The terms hip dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia, and renal dysplasia refer to an abnormal development, at macroscopic or microscopical level. Myelodysplastic syndromes, or dysplasia of blood-forming cells, show increased numbers of immature cells in the bone marrow, and a decrease in mature, functional cells in the blood.Contents1 Epithelial dysplasia1.1 Examples 1.2 Screening 1.3 Microscopic changes 1.4 Dysplasia
Dysplasia
vs. carcinoma in situ vs
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Squamous Epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Dermoepidermal Junction
The dermoepidermal junction or dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) is the area of tissue that joins the epidermal and the dermal layers of the skin.[1] The basal cells in the stratum basale of the epidermis connect to the basement membrane by the anchoring filaments of hemidesmosomes; the cells of the papillary layer of the dermis are attached to the basement membrane by anchoring fibrils, which consist of type VII collagen.[2] Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
and toxic epidermal necrolysis are diseases where there is a breakdown of the dermoepidermal junction. References[edit]^ McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ "Dermo-epidermal junction zone". Netzwerk Epidermolysis bullosa. 2006
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Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.[1] There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled.Contents1 Structure1.1 Types2 Function2.1 Vessel size 2.2 Blood
Blood
flow3 Disease 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins:The inner layer, Tunica intima, is the thinnest layer
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Rete Ridge
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.[1] The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens[2] and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss.[3] The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells,[4] that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis.[5] Epidermis
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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