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War On Drugs
War on Drugs
War on Drugs
is an American term[6][7] usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.[8][9] The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal. The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one"
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Bureau Of Narcotics And Dangerous Drugs
The Bureau of Narcotics
Bureau of Narcotics
and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) was a bureau within the United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
(DOJ) and a predecessor agency of the modern Drug Enforcement Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA).Contents1 History 2 Activities2.1 CIA
CIA
Involvement3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksHistory[edit] It was created by § 3 of the Reorganization Plan No
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
Governor of New York GovernorshipPresident of the United States PresidencyFirst Term1932 campaignElection1st Inauguration First 100 daysNew Deal Glass-Steagall Act WPA Social Security SEC Fireside ChatsSecond Term1936 campaignElection2nd InaugurationSupreme Court Packing National Recovery Act 1937 Recession March of Dimes Pre-war foreign policyThird Term1940 campaignElection3rd InaugurationWorld War IIWorld War IIAttack on Pearl Harbor Infamy Speech Atlantic Charter Japanese Internment Tehran Conference United Nations D-DaySecond Bill of Rights G.I
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Eighteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal. The separate Volstead Act
Volstead Act
set down methods for enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was the first to set a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and the first to set a time limit for its ratification by the states. President Woodrow Wilson vetoed the bill, but the House of Representatives overrode the veto, and the Senate did so as well the next day
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Ethanol
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C 2H 5OH. Its formula can be written also as CH 3−CH 2−OH or C 2H 5−OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol
Ethanol
is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol
Ethanol
is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries
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National Prohibition Act
The National Prohibition
Prohibition
Act, known informally as the Volstead Act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the 18th Amendment (ratified January 1919), which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler
Wayne Wheeler
conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation.Contents1 Procedure 2 Enforcement and impact 3 Repeal 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksProcedure[edit] While the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the production, sale, and transport of "intoxicating liquors", it did not define "intoxicating liquors" or provide penalties. It granted both the federal government and the states the power to enforce the ban by "appropriate legislation". A bill to do so was introduced in Congress in 1919
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Federal Bureau Of Narcotics
The Federal Bureau of Narcotics
Federal Bureau of Narcotics
(FBN) was an agency of the United States Department of the Treasury. Established in the Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14, 1930 consolidating the functions of the Federal Narcotics Control Board and the Narcotic Division. These older bureaus were established to assume enforcement responsibilities assigned to the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, 1914 and the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act, 1922.[1] (aka Jones-Miller Act) Harry J. Anslinger
Harry J. Anslinger
was appointed its first commissioner by Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon
Andrew Mellon
under President Herbert Hoover. Under Anslinger, the bureau lobbied for harsh penalties for drug usage. The FBN is credited for criminalizing drugs such as cannabis with the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, as well as strengthening the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914
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United States Department Of The Treasury
The Department of the Treasury
Treasury
(USDT)[1] is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. Established by an Act of Congress
Act of Congress
in 1789 to manage government revenue, its responsibilities include producing currency and coinage, collecting taxes and paying bills of the US government, managing the federal finances, supervising banks and thrifts, and advising on fiscal policy.[2] The Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, who is a member of the Cabinet
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Twenty-first Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition
Prohibition
on alcohol on January 16, 1919. The Twenty-first Amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933.[1] It is unique among the 27 amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment and to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions.Contents1 Text 2 Background 3 Proposal and ratification 4 Implementation4.1 State and local control 4.2 Court rulings5 See also 6 References 7 External linksText[edit]Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2
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Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act
The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug
Drug
Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act
Harrison Act
of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.[1] Harry J. Anslinger, head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, campaigned and lobbied for passage of the Uniform State Narcotic Act[2] and the Hearst newspaper media chain was an effective ally in his campaign for passage.[3] The draft of the act was submitted to the American Bar Association
American Bar Association
at its meeting in Washington in 1932, and it was officially approved by that body and sent to various states the following year
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DuPont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, commonly referred to as DuPont, is an American conglomerate that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by French-American
French-American
chemist and industrialist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont. In the 20th century, DuPont
DuPont
developed many polymers such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kapton, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek, Sorona, Corfam, and Lycra. DuPont
DuPont
developed Freon (chlorofluorocarbons) for the refrigerant industry, and later more environmentally friendly refrigerants
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The New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times
(sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
with worldwide influence and readership.[6][7][8] Founded in 1851, the paper has won 122 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[9][10] As of September 2016, it had the largest combined print-and-digital circulation of any daily newspaper in the United States.[11] The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation. The paper is owned by The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, which is publicly traded but primarily controlled by the Ochs-Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure.[12] It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G
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Marihuana Tax Act Of 1937
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Pub.L. 75–238, 50 Stat. 551, enacted August 2, 1937, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis. The H.R. 6385 act was drafted by Harry Anslinger
Harry Anslinger
and introduced by Rep. Robert L. Doughton of North Carolina, on April 14, 1937. The seventy-fifth Congress held hearings on April 27, 28, 29th, 30th, and May 4, 1937. Upon the congressional hearings confirmation, the H.R. 6385 act was redrafted as H.R. 6906 and introduced with House Report 792. The Act is now commonly referred to, using the modern spelling, as the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act. This act was overturned in 1969 in Leary v
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Andrew Mellon
Andrew William Mellon (/ˈmɛlən/; March 24, 1855 – August 26, 1937) was an American banker, businessman, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and politician. From the wealthy Mellon family of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he established a vast business empire before transitioning into politics. He served as United States Secretary of the Treasury from March 9, 1921 to February 12, 1932, presiding over the boom years of the 1920s and the Wall Street crash of 1929. A conservative Republican, Mellon lowered taxes and government spending in the aftermath of World War I. The son of banker Thomas Mellon, Andrew Mellon
Andrew Mellon
quickly established himself in the financial world. He became an owner of the family banking business, T. Mellon & Sons, and branched out into other businesses
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Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst
Sr. (/hɜːrst/;[1] April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, politician, and newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company Hearst Communications
Hearst Communications
and whose flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Moving to New York City, he acquired The New York Journal
New York Journal
and fought a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World
New York World
that sold papers by giant headlines over lurid stories featuring crime, corruption, graphics, sex, and innuendo
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