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War Film
WAR FILM is a film genre concerned with warfare , typically about naval , air , or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been strongly associated with the 20th century. The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them. Themes explored include combat, survival and escape, sacrifice, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, and the moral and human issues raised by war. War
War
films are often categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the most popular subject is the Second World War
War
. The stories told may be fiction , historical drama , or biographical . Critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia, Japan, and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance
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Kajiro Yamamoto
KAJIRō YAMAMOTO (山本 嘉次郎, Yamamoto Kajirō, 15 March 1902 – 21 September 1974) was a Japanese film director , screenwriter , and actor who was known for his war films and comedies and as the mentor of Akira Kurosawa . The combined list of his efforts as a director for documentaries, silent, and sound films includes over 90 film titles during his lifetime. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Selected filmography * 4.1 Director (selected films) * 4.2 Screenplay only (selected titles) * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Tokyo
Tokyo
, Yamamoto attended Keio University
Keio University
where he helped form a film appreciation society. He first appeared in film in 1921 as an actor opposite Yoshiko Okada , but that only earned the wrath of his family, who disowned him
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Hawai Mare Oki Kaisen
HAWAI MARE OKI KAISEN (ハワイ・マレー沖海戦), literally: The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaya, is a 1942 black-and-white Japanese war film directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
Kajiro Yamamoto
and made during the Second World War . CONTENTS * 1 Film * 2 Cast * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links FILM Hawai Mare oki kaisen
Hawai Mare oki kaisen
was the most costly film made in Japan
Japan
up to that time, costing over $380,000, at a time when a typical film cost no more than $40,000. It used special effects and miniature models to create realistic battle scenes. These were intercut with genuine newsreel material to create the appearance of a documentary . The film was released on the first anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
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War
WAR is a state of armed conflict between societies . It is generally characterized by extreme aggression , destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces . An absence of war is usually called "peace ". WARFARE refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets , and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties . While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature , others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War
War
, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests
Mongol conquests
at up to 60 million
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Military History
MILITARY HISTORY is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity , and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships . Professional historians normally focus on military affairs that had a major impact on the societies involved as well as the aftermath of conflicts, while amateur historians and hobbyists often take a larger interest in the details of battles, equipment and uniforms in use. The essential subjects of military history study are the causes of war, the social and cultural foundations, military doctrine on each side , the logistics, leadership, technology, strategy , and tactics used, and how these changed over time. On the other hand, Just War Theory explores the moral dimensions of warfare, and to better limit the destructive reality caused by war, seeks to establish a doctrine of military ethics
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Prehistoric Warfare
PREHISTORIC WARFARE refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history . The existence — and even the definition — of war in humanity's hypothetical state of nature has been a controversial topic in the history of ideas at least since Thomas Hobbes in _Leviathan_ (1651) argued a "war of all against all" , a view directly challenged by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in a _ Discourse on Inequality _ (1755) and _The Social Contract _ (1762). The debate over human nature continues, spanning contemporary anthropology , archaeology , ethnography , history , political science , psychology , primatology , and philosophy in such divergent books as Azar Gat 's _ War in Human Civilization_ and Raymond C. Kelly 's _Warless Societies and the Origin of War_
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Ancient Warfare
ANCIENT WARFARE is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period . In Europe
Europe
and the Near East , the end of antiquity is often equated with the Fall of Rome
Rome
in 476, the wars of the Eastern Roman Empire
Empire
on its Southwestern Asian and North African borders, and the beginnings of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. In China
China
, it can also be seen as ending with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north in the 5th century and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in 618. In India
India
, the ancient period ends with the decline of the Gupta Empire (6th century) and the beginning of the Muslim conquests there from the 8th century
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Medieval Warfare
MEDIEVAL WARFARE is the European warfare of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Technological, cultural, and social developments had forced a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity , changing military tactics and the role of cavalry and artillery . In terms of fortification, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
saw the emergence of the castle in Europe, which then spread to Western Asia
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Early Modern Warfare
Warfare
Warfare
of the early modern period is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and handguns ; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of GUNPOWDER WARFARE (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s). This entire period is contained within the Age of Sail , which characteristic dominated the era's naval tactics , including the use of gunpowder in naval artillery
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Modern Warfare
MODERN WARFARE is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars 1 and 2. The concepts and methods have assumed more complex forms of the 19th- and early-20th-century antecedents, largely due to the widespread use of highly advanced information technology , and combatants must modernize constantly to preserve their battle worthiness. Although total war was thought to be the form of international conflicts from the experience of the French Revolutionary Wars to World War
War
II, the term no longer describes warfare in which a belligerent use all of its resources to destroy the enemy's organized ability to engage in war. The practice of total war which had been in use for over a century, as a form of war policy, has been changed dramatically with greater awareness of tactical , operational , and strategic battle information
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Industrial Warfare
INDUSTRIAL WARFARE is a period in the history of warfare ranging roughly from the early 19th century and the start of the Industrial Revolution to the beginning of the Atomic Age
Atomic Age
, which saw the rise of nation-states , capable of creating and equipping large armies , navies , and air forces , through the process of industrialization . The era featured mass-conscripted armies, rapid transportation (first on railroads , then by sea and air ), telegraph and wireless communications , and the concept of total war . In terms of technology, this era saw the rise of rifled breech-loading infantry weapons capable of high rates of fire , high-velocity breech-loading artillery , chemical weapons , armoured warfare , metal warships , submarines , and aircraft
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Fourth-generation Warfare
FOURTH-GENERATION WARFARE (4GW) is conflict characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics , combatants and civilians . The term was first used in 1989 by a team of United States
United States
analysts, including paleoconservative William S. Lind , to describe warfare 's return to a decentralized form. In terms of generational modern warfare , the fourth generation signifies the nation states ' loss of their near-monopoly on combat forces, returning to modes of conflict common in pre-modern times. The simplest definition includes any war in which one of the major participants is not a state but rather a violent non-state actor . Classical examples of this type of conflict, such as the slave uprising under Spartacus , predate the modern concept of warfare
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Battlespace
BATTLESPACE is a term used to signify a unified military strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations , including air , information , land , sea , cyber and space to achieve military goals . It includes the environment, factors, and conditions that must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission. This includes enemy and friendly armed forces , infrastructure , weather , terrain , and the electromagnetic spectrum within the operational areas and areas of interest
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Aerial Warfare
AERIAL WARFARE is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare . Aerial warfare includes bombers attacking enemy installations or a concentration of enemy troops or strategic targets ; fighter aircraft battling for control of airspace ; attack aircraft engaging in close air support against ground targets; naval aviation flying against sea and nearby land targets; gliders , helicopters and other aircraft to carry airborne forces such as paratroopers ; aerial refueling tankers to extend operation time or range; and military transport aircraft to move cargo and personnel
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Cyberwarfare
CYBERWARFARE involves the battlespace use and targeting of computers and networks in warfare . It involves both offensive and defensive operations pertaining to the threat of cyberattacks , espionage and sabotage. There has been controversy over whether such operations can duly be called "war". Nevertheless, nations have been developing their capabilities and engaged in cyberwarfare either as an aggressor, defendant, or both
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Information Warfare
INFORMATION WARFARE (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare may involve collection of tactical information, assurance(s) that one's own information is valid, spreading of propaganda or disinformation to demoralize or manipulate the enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and denial of information-collection opportunities to opposing forces. Information warfare is closely linked to psychological warfare . The United States military focus tends to favor technology, and hence tends to extend into the realms of electronic warfare , cyberwarfare , information assurance and computer network operations , attack and defense
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