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War Film
WAR FILM is a film genre concerned with warfare , typically about naval , air , or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been strongly associated with the 20th century. The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them. Themes explored include combat, survival and escape, sacrifice, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, and the moral and human issues raised by war. War
War
films are often categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the most popular subject is the Second World War
War
. The stories told may be fiction , historical drama , or biographical . Critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia, Japan, and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance
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Cover (military)
In military combat, the concept of COVER refers to anything which is capable of physically protecting an individual from enemy fire. This differentiates it from the similar concept of concealment, in that an object or area of concealment only affords the benefit of stealth, not actual protection from small arms fire or artillery fragments . An example of "cover vs. concealment" would be sandbags vs. tall grass. Cover may be a naturally occurring feature, such as a rock or a tree stump, or it may be a constructed feature, such as a foxhole or a trench. UNIFORMIn some military services (especially in the United States
United States
), a uniform's hat is sometimes referred to officially as a cover, as in "Hey soldier, remove your cover!" or "You're not in uniform without your cover." It is a convention in the U.S. Army that an armed soldier must wear cover while indoors to indicate that they are under arms
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Counterattack
A COUNTERATTACK is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games ". The general objective is to negate or thwart the advantage gained by the enemy during attack, while the specific objectives typically seek to regain lost ground or destroy the attacking enemy (this may take the form of an opposing sports team or military units ). A saying, attributed to Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte illustrate the tactical importance of the counterattack : "the greatest danger occurs at the moment of victory". In the same spirit, in his Battle Studies , Ardant du Pic noticed that "he, general or mere captain, who employs every one in the storming of a position can be sure of seeing it retaken by an organised counter-attack of four men and a corporal". A counterattack is a military tactic that occurs when one side successfully defends off the enemy’s attack and begins to push the enemy back with an attack of its own
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Charge (warfare)
A CHARGE is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat . The charge is the dominant shock attack and has been the key tactic and decisive moment of many battles throughout history. Modern charges usually involve small groups against individual positions (such as a bunker ) instead of large groups of combatants charging another group or a fortified line
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Defensive Fighting Position
A DEFENSIVE FIGHTING POSITION (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context , generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology
Terminology
* 2 History * 2.1 Tobruk * 3 Modern * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links TERMINOLOGYTOBRUK type positions are named after the system of defensive positions constructed, initially, by the Italian Army at Tobruk , Libya. After Tobruk fell to the Allies in January 1941, the existing positions were modified and significantly expanded by the Australian Army which, along with other Allied forces, reused them in the Siege of Tobruk . A FOXHOLE is one type of defensive strategic position
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Morale
MORALE (also known as ESPRIT DE CORPS (French pronunciation: ​ )) is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value judgment of the willpower , obedience , and self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior . According to Alexander H. Leighton , "morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose". Morale is important in the military, because it improves unit cohesion . Without good morale, a force will be more likely to give up or surrender. Morale is usually assessed at a collective, rather than an individual level. In wartime, civilian morale is also important. Esprit de corps is considered to be an important part of a fighting unit
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Operational Manoeuvre Group
The OPERATIONAL MANOEUVRE GROUP (OMG) was a Soviet Army organisational maneuver warfare concept created during the early 1950s to replace the Cavalry mechanized group which performed the deep operations on the Eastern Front during the Second World War
Second World War
. The deep operations theory developed in cooperation between the Red Army and Wehrmacht theorists in the 1930s later influenced the Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
operations and echelon-based doctrine. In the Soviet Army doctrine the Operational Manoeuvre Groups would be inserted to exploit a breakthrough by a Front during a potential war against NATO
NATO
in Europe
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Tactical Objective
A TACTICAL OBJECTIVE is the immediate short term desired result of a given activity, task or mission, usually entrusted to the lower positioned management in a three-tier organisation's structure of field or front desk, middle and executive management. While historically the term had been applied to military operations , in the 20th century it has been increasingly applied in the fields of public safety such as policing and fire-fighting , commerce and trade planning, and political and international relations policy . A tactical objective is often an intermediate step to achieving an operational objective , and as such requires decision making and problem solving skills applied during the execution of the tactical plan as part of the operational plan . Tactical objectives in the commercial use represent performance targets established by the middle management for achieving specific organisational outcomes
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Air Combat Manoeuvring
AIR COMBAT MANOEUVRING (also known as ACM or dogfighting ) is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. Air combat manoeuvres rely on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring (BFM) to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent. CONTENTS * 1 Historical overview * 2 Tactics * 3 Example manoeuvring * 4 See also * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORICAL OVERVIEWMilitary aviation appeared in World War I
World War I
where aircraft were initially used to spot enemy troop concentrations, field gun positions and movements. Early aerial combat consisted of aviators shooting at one another with hand held weapons. The first recorded aircraft to be shot down by another aircraft, which occurred on October 5, 1914, was a German Aviatik
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Kajiro Yamamoto
KAJIRō YAMAMOTO (山本 嘉次郎, Yamamoto Kajirō, 15 March 1902 – 21 September 1974) was a Japanese film director , screenwriter , and actor who was known for his war films and comedies and as the mentor of Akira Kurosawa . The combined list of his efforts as a director for documentaries, silent, and sound films includes over 90 film titles during his lifetime. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Selected filmography * 4.1 Director (selected films) * 4.2 Screenplay only (selected titles) * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Tokyo , Yamamoto attended Keio University where he helped form a film appreciation society. He first appeared in film in 1921 as an actor opposite Yoshiko Okada , but that only earned the wrath of his family, who disowned him. CAREERHe worked as an actor on the stage, joined Nikkatsu as an assistant director, and finally made his directorial debut in 1924 at Tōa Kinema
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Hawai Mare Oki Kaisen
HAWAI MARE OKI KAISEN (ハワイ・マレー沖海戦), literally: The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaya, is a 1942 black-and-white Japanese war film directed by Kajiro Yamamoto and made during the Second World War . CONTENTS * 1 Film * 2 Cast * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links FILMHawai Mare oki kaisen was the most costly film made in Japan up to that time, costing over $380,000, at a time when a typical film cost no more than $40,000. It used special effects and miniature models to create realistic battle scenes. These were intercut with genuine newsreel material to create the appearance of a documentary . The film was released on the first anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor . The film was confiscated by Supreme Command Allied Powers after the war, who mistook it for genuine news footage of the attack, and it was released by Movietone as such. The special effects are by Eiji Tsuburaya . Joseph L
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Medieval Warfare
MEDIEVAL WARFARE is the European warfare of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Technological, cultural, and social developments had forced a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity , changing military tactics and the role of cavalry and artillery . In terms of fortification, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
saw the emergence of the castle in Europe, which then spread to Western Asia
Western Asia

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Counter-insurgency
A COUNTER-INSURGENCY or COUNTERINSURGENCY (COIN) can de defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes". An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents . It is the organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a political struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political, economic and influence activities to be effective. Counter-insurgency
Counter-insurgency
campaigns of duly-elected or politically recognized governments take place during war , occupation by a foreign military or police force, and when internal conflicts that involve subversion and armed rebellion occur
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Prehistoric Warfare
PREHISTORIC WARFARE refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history . The existence — and even the definition — of war in humanity's hypothetical state of nature has been a controversial topic in the history of ideas at least since Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
in Leviathan (1651) argued a "war of all against all" , a view directly challenged by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in a Discourse on Inequality (1755) and The Social Contract (1762). The debate over human nature continues, spanning contemporary anthropology , archaeology , ethnography , history , political science , psychology , primatology , and philosophy in such divergent books as Azar Gat 's War
War
in Human Civilization and Raymond C. Kelly 's Warless Societies and the Origin of War
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Ancient Warfare
ANCIENT WARFARE is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period . In Europe
Europe
and the Near East , the end of antiquity is often equated with the Fall of Rome
Rome
in 476 AD, the wars of the Eastern Roman Empire
Empire
on its Southwestern Asian and North African borders, and the beginnings of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. In China
China
, it can also be seen as ending with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north in the 5th century and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in 618. In India
India
, the ancient period ends with the decline of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
(6th century) and the beginning of the Muslim conquests there from the 8th century
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