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Walter J. Boyne
WALTER J. BOYNE (born 1929) is a retired United States
United States
Air Force officer , Command Pilot , combat veteran, aviation historian, and author of more than 50 books and over 1,000 magazine articles. He is a former director of the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
and a former Chairman of the National Aeronautic Association . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military career * 3 Author and historian * 3.1 Works * 4 National Air and Space Museum career * 5 Later years * 6 Honors * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEWalter Boyne grew up the son of a poor family in East Saint Louis, Illinois during the time of the Great Depression . He attended Holy Angels grade school where he first discovered an interest in writing. His love of flying was encouraged by dime novels of the day such as Robert J. Hogan's G-8 and His Battle Aces that depicted "America's World War I Flying Spy" engaged in air-to-air combat. He decided at this young age that he would become a pilot for the Air Force and focused his efforts to achieve that goal. Boyne earned a number of scholarships that enabled him to attend Washington University in St. Louis . MILITARY CAREER 4925th Test Group. Boyne is in the back row, fourth from the left In May 1951, after two years at the university, Boyne entered the U.S
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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United States Air Force
U.S. Department of Defense * Dept. of the Air Force HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia , U.S. MOTTO(S) _"Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"_ COLORS Ultramarine Blue and Golden Yellow MARCH The U.S. Air Force _ Play (help ·info ) ENGAGEMENTS See list_ * Korean War Puerto Rican Nationalist Party revolts of the 1950s Vietnam War Communist insurgency in Thailand Korean DMZ Conflict Shaba II Iranian hostage rescue Invasion of Grenada Bombing of Libya Invasion of Panama Gulf War Iraqi no-fly zones Operation Deliberate Force 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia Operation Enduring Freedom * Afghanistan (2001–14) * Philippines * Horn of Africa * Trans Sahara * Caribbean and Central America Iraq War War in North-West Pakistan Pakistan-United States skirmishes Operation Odyssey Dawn Military intervention against ISIL War in Afghanistan (2015–present) WEBSITE af.mil COMMANDERS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF President Donald Trump SECRETARY OF DEFENSE James Mattis SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE Heather Wilson CHIEF OF STAFF Gen David L. Goldfein VICE CHIEF OF STAFF Gen Stephen W
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Colonel (united States)
In the United States Army
United States Army
, Marine Corps , and Air Force , COLONEL /ˈkɜːrrnəl/ is the most senior field grade military officer rank , immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general . It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services . The pay grade for colonel is O-6. The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side (a mirror-image version is worn on the right side, such that the eagle always faces forward to the wearer's front; the left-side version is also worn centered on fatigue caps, helmets, Army ACU "> William Few in the uniform of a Continental Army colonel The insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States (which is the coat of arms of the United States). As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U.S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons . However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons
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Military Officer
An OFFICER is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" includes non-commissioned officers and warrant officers . However, when used without further detail, the term "officer" almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state of a sovereign nation-state . CONTENTS * 1 Numbers * 2 Legal relevance * 3 Terminological details in the U.S. * 4 Commissioned officers * 4.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 4.2 United States * 4.2.1 Other U.S. officer commissioning programs, active and discontinued * 4.3 Commonwealth of Nations * 5 Non-commissioned officers * 6 Warrant officers * 7 Officer ranks and accommodation * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links NUMBERS An Indonesian army officer serving as a ceremonial field commander The proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, and about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. Historically, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers
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U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Rating
U.S. AIR FORCE AERONAUTICAL RATINGS are military aviation skill standards established and awarded by the United States Air Force for commissioned officers participating in "regular and frequent flight", either aerially or in space, in performance of their duties. USAF aeronautical badges , commonly referred to as "wings" from their shape and their historical legacy, are awarded by the Air Force in recognition of degrees of achievement and experience. Officers earning these badges and maintaining their requirements are classified as RATED OFFICERS and receive additional pay and allowances. The first U.S. military aviator ratings were awarded in 1912, and the issuance of badges for recognition of the award began in 1913. The division of ratings into multiple skill levels and categories began in 1914 and expanded during World War I
World War I
. With minor variations in numbers and titles of ratings, the system remained largely unchanged until 1940, when the current system of pilot ratings was introduced. During World War II
World War II
, as many as 19 aeronautical ratings were recognized and awarded by the Army Air Forces , but most were discontinued after the war when the USAF came into being. USAF ratings gradually expanded until seven categories and 21 ratings exist currently. The most recent change added the RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft ) Pilot rating, effective 13 December 2010
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National Air And Space Museum
The NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM of the Smithsonian Institution , also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C. . It holds the largest collection of historic aircraft and spacecraft in the world. It was established in 1946 as the NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM and opened its main building on the National Mall near L\'Enfant Plaza in 1976. In 2014, the museum saw approximately 6.7 million visitors, making it the fifth most visited museum in the world. The museum contains the Apollo 11 command module , the _Friendship 7_ capsule which was flown by John Glenn , the Bell X-1 which broke the sound barrier , and the Wright brothers ' plane near the entrance. The National Air and Space Museum is a center for research into the history and science of aviation and spaceflight , as well as planetary science and terrestrial geology and geophysics . Almost all space and aircraft on display are originals or the original backup craft. It operates an annex, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center , at Dulles International Airport , which opened in 2003 and itself encompasses 760,000 square feet (71,000 m2). The museum currently conducts restoration of its collection at the Paul E
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Smithsonian Institution
The SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION (/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ _smith-SOE-nee-ən_ ), established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge", is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States . Originally organized as the "United States National Museum", that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia . Additional facilities are located in Arizona , Maryland , Massachusetts , New York City , Pittsburgh , Texas , Virginia , and Panama . More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states , Puerto Rico , and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates . The Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations
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National Aeronautic Association
The NATIONAL AERONAUTIC ASSOCIATION of the United States (NAA) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization and a founding member of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
(FAI). Founded in 1905, it is the oldest national aviation club in the United States and one of the oldest in the world, it serves as the “Aeroclub of the United States” and, by its Mission Statement it is "…dedicated to the advancement of the art, sport and science of aviation in the United States.” The NAA is headquartered at the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport , in Washington, D.C. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The NAA and the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
* 3 Mission * 4 Aviation and aerospace records * 5 Aviation trophies and awards * 6 Air Sports In America * 7 NAA leadership * 8 NAA membership * 9 NAA Luncheon Program * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORYThe NAA was founded in 1905 as the Aero Club of America (ACA), by members of the Automobile Club of America. From its inception, ACA’s goal was to promote aviation in any way possible, as both a sport and a commercial endeavor. In 1922 it was incorporated as the Aero Club’s successor, and continued the original group’s mission of promoting aviation
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East Saint Louis, Illinois
EAST ST. LOUIS is a city in St. Clair County, Illinois
St. Clair County, Illinois
, United States , across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from St. Louis, Missouri , in the Metro-East
Metro-East
region of Southern Illinois . Once a bustling industrial center like many cities in the Rust Belt , East St. Louis has been severely affected by loss of jobs due to deindustrialization during the second half of the 20th century. In 1950, East St. Louis was the fourth largest city in Illinois
Illinois
when population peaked at 82,366. As of the 2010 census , the city had a population of 27,006, less than one-third of the 1950 census . One of the highlights of the city's waterfront is the Gateway Geyser . Located on the grounds of Malcolm W. Martin Memorial Park, the fountain is the second-tallest in the world. Designed to complement the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
across the river in St. Louis, it shoots water to a height of 630 feet (190 m), the same height as the Arch. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
* 1.2 The Great Cyclone of 1896 * 1.3 East St. Louis riots
East St

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Great Depression
The GREAT DEPRESSION was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression
Great Depression
varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until 1941. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression
Great Depression
is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States
United States
, after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday
Black Tuesday
). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession . Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression
Great Depression
lasted until the beginning of World War II
World War II
. The Great Depression
Great Depression
had devastating effects in countries both rich and poor . Personal income
Personal income
, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%
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Dime Novels
The DIME NOVEL is a form of late 19th-century and early 20th-century U.S. popular fiction issued in series of inexpensive paperbound editions. The term dime novel has been used as a catchall term for several different but related forms, referring to dime novels, story papers , five- and ten-cent weeklies, "thick book" reprints, and sometimes early pulp magazines . The term was used as a title as late as 1940, in the short-lived pulp magazine Western Dime Novels. Dime novels are the antecedent of today's mass-market paperbacks , comic books , television shows and movies based on dime-novel genres. In the modern age, the term dime novel has been used to refer to quickly written, lurid potboilers , usually as a pejorative to describe a sensationalized but superficial literary work. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Prices * 1.2 Development * 1.3 Changing formats * 1.4 Demise * 2 Collections * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links HISTORY Cover of Malaeska, the Indian Wife of the White Hunter (1860) In 1860, the publishers Erastus and Irwin Beadle released a new series of cheap paperbacks, Beadle's Dime Novels. Dime novel
Dime novel
became a general term for similar paperbacks produced by various publishers in the early twentieth century. The first book in the Beadle series was Malaeska, the Indian Wife of the White Hunter, by Ann S. Stephens , dated June 9, 1860
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G-8 (character)
G-8 was a heroic aviator and spy during World War I
World War I
in pulp fiction . He starred in his own title G-8 and His Battle Aces, published by Popular Publications . All stories were written by Robert J. Hogan , under his own name. The title lasted 110 issues, from October 1933 to June 1944. Many of the novels have been reprinted by a wide range of publishers including comic books. While not as dramatic a pulp character as Doc Savage
Doc Savage
or the Shadow , his stories were often outlandish, with many supernatural or science fiction elements. G-8's true identity was never revealed. He had a girlfriend, a nurse who aided his group, and her name as well was never revealed. His English manservant was named Battle. His wing-men were the short Nippy Weston, who flew an aircraft numbered 13, and the tall and muscular but superstitious Bull Martin, whose aircraft was numbered 7. Both of them were Americans. His adventures entailed fighting against the lethal super technology that was constantly created by the Kaiser's mad scientists. Reoccurring villains included Herr Doktor Krueger, the Steel Mask, and Grun. A character based on G-8 made two appearances in the comic book Planetary alongside many other pulp analogues as part of a society for the betterment of humankind
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Washington University In St. Louis
WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IN ST. LOUIS (also referred to as WASHU, or WUSTL) is a private research university located in St. Louis , Missouri , United States. Founded in 1853, and named after George Washington , the university has students and faculty from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 countries. Twenty-five Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Washington University, nine having done the major part of their pioneering research at the university. Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked 19th by _U.S. News & World Report _ in 2017 and 11th by the Wall Street Journal in 2016. The university is ranked 23rd in the world in 2016 by the Academic Ranking of World Universities . Washington University is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools that encompass a broad range of academic fields . To prevent confusion over its location, the Board of Trustees added the phrase "in St. Louis" in 1976. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early history (1853–1900) * 1.2 Modern era (1900–1955) * 1.3 Recent history (1955–present) * 1.4 U.S
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Flight Cadet
A FLIGHT CADET is a military or civilian occupational title that is held by someone who is in training to operate an airplane . The trainee does not need to become a pilot , as flight cadets may also learn to serve as a bombardier , navigator , or flight engineer . FLYING CADET PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM (USAAS)From 1907 to 1947, the army ran this program to train pilots for the US Army Air Service
US Army Air Service
(1918-1926), US Army Air Corps
US Army Air Corps
(1926–1941), and US Army Air Force
US Army Air Force
(1941–1947). During America's involvement in World War II (1942–1945), the rank of flight cadet was changed to that of aviation cadet and the program name was changed to the "Aviation Cadet Training Program ". From 1947, this program was run by the now separate US Air Force . The pilot cadet program ended in 1961, but the navigator cadet program ended in 1965. NAVAL AVIATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (USN) Main article: Aviation Cadet Training Program (USN)
Aviation Cadet Training Program (USN)
ROYAL AIR FORCEThe Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
operated a flight cadet scheme at the RAF College Cranwell until 1977. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flight_cadet additional terms may apply
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Enlisted Rank
An ENLISTED RANK (also known as an ENLISTED GRADE or ENLISTED RATE) is, in some armed services, any rank below that of a commissioned officer . The term can be inclusive of non-commissioned officers or warrant officers , except in United States military usage where warrant officers/chief warrant officers are a separate officer category ranking above enlisted grades and below commissioned officer grades. In most cases, enlisted service personnel perform jobs specific to their own occupational specialty, as opposed to the more generalized command responsibilities of commissioned officers. The term "enlistment" refers solely to a military commitment (whether officer or enlisted) whereas the terms "taken of strength" and "struck off strength" refer to a servicemember being carried on a given unit's roll. CONTENTS * 1 Canadian Forces * 2 North Atlantic Treaty Organization * 3 United States Armed Forces * 4 See also * 5 References CANADIAN FORCESIn the Canadian Forces , the term non-commissioned member (NCM) is used. NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATIONFor the ranks used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization , non-commissioned ranks are coded OR1–OR9 (bottom