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Walter Bedell Smith
General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (5 October 1895 – 9 August 1961) was a senior officer of the United States
United States
Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) during the Tunisia Campaign
Tunisia Campaign
and the Allied invasion of Italy
Italy
in 1943 during World War II. He was Eisenhower's chief of staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in the campaign in Western Europe from 1944 through 1945. Smith enlisted as a private in the Indiana
Indiana
Army National Guard in 1911. In 1917, during World War I, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant. He was wounded in the Aisne-Marne Offensive
Aisne-Marne Offensive
in 1918. After World War I, he was a staff officer and instructor at the U.S. Army Infantry School
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Sally Bedell Smith
Sarah "Sally" Bedell Smith (born May 27, 1948) is an American historian and author specializing in biographies of American political, cultural, and business leaders, as well as members of the British Royal Family. She has been a contributing editor at Vanity Fair for over 20 years, and is married to Stephen G. Smith, former editor of U.S. News & World Report and current editor in chief of National Journal
National Journal
Daily. Her books have been translated into more than a dozen languages.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Sarah Rowbotham was born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Ruth (Kirk) and James Howard Rowbotham, a brigadier general and businessman.[4][5][6] She grew up in the nearby town of St
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Legion Of Merit
The Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued to members of the seven uniformed services of the United States[5] as well as to military and political figures of foreign governments. The Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(Commander degree) is one of only two United States military decorations to be issued as a neck order (the other being the Medal of Honor) and the only United States military decoration which may be issued in award degrees (much like an order of chivalry or certain Orders of Merit).[6][7] The Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
is sixth in the order of precedence of all U.S. military awards and is worn after the Defense Superior Service Medal and before the Distinguished Flying Cross.[8] In contemporary use in the U.S
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Walter B. Smith (Medal Of Honor)
Walter B. Smith (born 1827, date of death unknown) was a Union Navy sailor in the American Civil War and a recipient of the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions at the Battle of Mobile Bay. Born in 1827, in New York, Smith joined the Navy from that state. He served in the Civil War as an ordinary seaman on the USS Richmond. During the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5, 1864, he manned an artillery gun on the topgallant forecastle (a deck at the top of the ship's forecastle). When Richmond became engaged with the CSS Tennessee, Smith fired his musket into the Confederate ship's gun ports. For these actions, he was awarded the Medal of Honor four months later, on December 31, 1864.[1][2] Smith's official Medal of Honor citation reads:On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864
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Operation Torch
Coordinates: 35°05′06″N 2°01′44″W / 35.085°N 2.029°W / 35.085; -2.029Operation TorchPart of the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
of World War IIA map showing landings during the operationDate 8–16 November 1942Location French Morocco
French Morocco
and French AlgeriaResultAllied victoryAnglo-American occupation of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria Free France
Free France
gains control of French West Africa German and Italian occupation of southern France
France
and scuttling of the French fleet Run for TunisBelligerents United States  United Kingdom India Free FranceNaval only Canada  Netherlands  Australia Vichy France Algeria MoroccoNaval only Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Dwight D. Eisenhower George S
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Tunisia Campaign
 United Kingdom British India United States  Free France French colonial empire New Zealand Poland  Greece  Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Dwight D
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Allied Invasion Of Italy
The Allied invasion of Italy
Italy
was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy
Italy
that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II. The operation was undertaken by General Sir Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group (comprising General Mark W. Clark
Mark W

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Allied Advance From Paris To The Rhine
U.S.: 240,082 casualties (50,410 killed, 172,450 wounded, 24,374 captured or missing) (15 September 1944 – 21 March 1945) U.K.: ~32,366 Canadian: ~15,000 France: 15,390-17,390[2] Total: 272,448+ [3]400,000+ casualties[4]~40,000 killed ~80,000 wounded 280,000+ capturedv t eWestern Front of World War IIprelude1939Phoney War Saar The Heligoland Bight1940Luxembourg The NetherlandsThe Hague Rotterdam Zeeland German bombing of RotterdamBelgiumFort Eben-Emael Hannut Gembloux La LysFranceSedan Montcornet Arras Lille Boulogne Calais Abbeville Paula Dunkirk Dunkirk
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Western Allied Invasion Of Germany
Decisive Allied victoryFall of Nazi Germany End of World War II
World War II
in Europe (concurrently with the Eastern Front)Belligerents United States  United Kingdom France  Canada  Poland Nazi Germany  Hungary[1]Commanders and leaders Adolf Hitler
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Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)
The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM)[2] is a military award of the United States Army
United States Army
that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service that is clearly exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration.[3] Separate Distinguished Service Medals exist for the different branches of the military as well as a fifth version of the medal which is a senior award of the United States Department of Defense
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Distinguished Service Medal (United States Navy)
The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States Navy
United States Navy
and United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
which was first created in 1919. The medal is presented to recognize distinguished and exceptionally meritorious service to the United States while serving in a duty or position of great responsibility.[6] The award is the Navy and Marine Corps equivalent to the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, and the Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal
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Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. Whenever the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device
"V" Device
is authorized for wear on the medal, and whenever the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces.[5][6] Civilians serving with U.S. military forces in combat are also eligible for the award
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Officer (armed Forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" includes non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term "officer" almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state of a sovereign nation-state.Contents1 Numbers 2 Legal relevance 3 Terminological details in the U.S. 4 Commissioned officers4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 United States4.2.1 Other U.S. officer commissioning programs, active and discontinued4.3 Commonwealth of Nations5 Non-commissioned officers 6 Warrant officers 7 Officer ranks and accommodation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNumbers[edit]An Indonesian army
Indonesian army
officer serving as a ceremonial field commanderThe proportion of officers varies greatly
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Chief Of Staff
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer. In general, a chief of staff provides a buffer between a chief executive and that executive's direct-reporting team. The chief of staff generally works behind the scenes to solve problems, mediate disputes, and deal with issues before they are brought to the chief executive. Often chiefs of staff act as a confidante and advisor to the chief executive, acting as a sounding board for ideas
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Allied Force Headquarters
Allied Force Headquarters
Headquarters
(AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945. AFHQ was established in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in August 1942 under Lieutenant General Dwight David Eisenhower in order to command the forces committed to Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa, set for November. Eisenhower had the title Commander-in-Chief, Allied Expeditionary Force. Shortly after the establishment of the headquarters, "Expeditionary" was deleted from its title, for reasons of operational security
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