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Walruses
O. rosmarus rosmarus O. rosmarus divergens O. rosmarus laptevi (debated)Distribution of walrus Walrus
Walrus
cows and yearlings (short tusks), photo courtesy USFWSThe walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole
North Pole
in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae
Odobenidae
and genus Odobenus. This species is subdivided into three subspecies:[2] the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus) which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens) which lives in the Pacific Ocean, and O. r. laptevi, which lives in the Laptev Sea
Laptev Sea
of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Adult walrus are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers, and bulk
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Walrus (other)
A walrus is a large, flippered marine mammal. "Walrus" may also refer to:Contents1 Individuals 2 Songs 3 Transportation3.1 Aviation 3.2 Maritime 3.3 Rail 3.4 Other4 Places 5 Other 6 See alsoIndividuals[edit]Barry White, who was popularly known as "The Walrus
Walrus
of Love" Craig Stadler, professional PGA Tour golfer, popularly known as "the Walrus" Jamie Hyneman, special effects artist and co-host of the television show Mythbusters who is nicknamed "walrus" Paul Heyman, professional wrestling manager and promoter, humorously re
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Scandinavia
Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
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Elephant Seal
M. angustirostris M. leoninaElephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga. The two species, the northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) and the southern elephant seal (M. leonina), were both hunted to the brink of extinction by the end of the 19th century, but the numbers have since recovered. The northern elephant seal, somewhat smaller than its southern relative, ranges over the Pacific
Pacific
coast of the U.S., Canada
Canada
and Mexico. The most northerly breeding location on the Pacific
Pacific
Coast is at Race Rocks, at the southern tip of Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
in the Strait of Juan de Fuca
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Continental Shelves
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods. The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment
Sediment
from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise
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Sea Ice
Sea ice
Sea ice
arises as seawater freezes. Because ice is less dense than water, it floats on the ocean's surface (as does fresh water ice, which has an even lower density). Sea ice
Sea ice
covers about 7% of the Earth’s surface and about 12% of the world’s oceans.[1][2][3] Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack
Arctic ice pack
of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and the Antarctic ice pack
Antarctic ice pack
of the Southern Ocean. Polar packs undergo a significant yearly cycling in surface extent, a natural process upon which depends the Arctic
Arctic
ecology, including the ocean's ecosystems. Due to the action of winds, currents and temperature fluctuations, sea ice is very dynamic, leading to a wide variety of ice types and features
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Benthic Zone
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos, e.g. the benthic invertebrate community, including crustaceans and polychaetes.[1] The organisms generally live in close relationship with the substrate bottom and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The superficial layer of the soil lining the given body of water, the benthic boundary layer, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there
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Bivalvia
See textEmpty shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas)Empty shells of the sword razor ( Ensis
Ensis
ensis)Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim
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Keystone Species
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.[1] Such species are described as playing a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in the community. A keystone species is a plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions. Without keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether. The role that a keystone species plays in its ecosystem is analogous to the role of a keystone in an arch. While the keystone is under the least pressure of any of the stones in an arch, the arch still collapses without it. Similarly, an ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed, even though that species was a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity
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Circumpolar Peoples
Circumpolar peoples
Circumpolar peoples
and Arctic
Arctic
peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.Circumpolar coastal human population distribution ca. Hi 2009 (includes both indigenous and non-indigenous)Contents1 Prehistory 2 Historical and contemporary peoples2.1 List of peoples by ethnolinguistic grouping3 See also 4 ReferencesPrehistory[edit] The earliest inhabitants of North America's central and eastern Arctic are referred to as the Arctic
Arctic
small tool tradition (AST) and existed c. 2500 BC. AST consisted of several Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures, including the Independence cultures and Pre-Dorset culture.[1][2] The Dorset culture (Inuktitut: Tuniit or Tunit) refers to the next inhabitants of central and eastern Arctic
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Blubber
Blubber
Blubber
is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.Contents1 Description 2 Function 3 Human influences3.1 Uses 3.2 Health 3.3 Toxicity4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Lipid-rich, collagen fiber-laced blubber comprises the hypodermis[1] and covers the whole body, except for parts of the appendages. It is strongly attached to the musculature and skeleton by highly organized, fan-shaped networks of tendons and ligaments, can comprise up to 50% of the body mass of some marine mammals during some points in their lives, and can range from 2 inches (5 cm) thick in dolphins and smaller whales, to more than 12 inches (30 cm) thick in some bigger whales, such as right and bowhead whales. However, this is not indicative of larger whales' ability to retain heat better, as the thickness of a whale's blubber does not significantly affect heat loss
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Walrus Ivory
Walrus
Walrus
tusk ivory comes from two modified upper canines. It is also known as morse.[1] The tusks of a Pacific walrus may attain a length of one meter. Walrus
Walrus
teeth are also commercially carved and traded. The average walrus tooth has a rounded, irregular peg shape and is approximately 5 cm in length. The tip of a walrus tusk has an enamel coating which is worn away during the animal's youth. Fine longitudinal cracks, which appear as radial cracks in cross-section, originate in the cementum and penetrate the dentine. These cracks can be seen throughout the length of the tusk. Whole cross-sections of walrus tusks are generally oval with widely spaced indentations. The dentine is composed of two types: primary dentine and secondary dentine (often called osteodentine). Primary dentine has a classical ivory appearance
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Carta Marina
Carta marina
Carta marina
et descriptio septentrionalium terrarum ( Latin
Latin
for Marine map and description of the Northern lands[1]; commonly abbreviated Carta marina) is the first map of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
to give details and place names, created by Swedish ecclesiastic Olaus Magnus
Olaus Magnus
and initially published in 1539. Only two earlier maps of the Nordic countries are known, those of Jacob Ziegler (Strasbourg, 1532) and Claudius Clavus
Claudius Clavus
(15th century). The map is centered on Scandia, which is shown in the largest size text on the map and placed on the middle of Sweden. The map covers the Nordic lands of "Svecia" (Svealand), "Gothia" (Götaland), "Norvegia" (Norway), Dania (Denmark), Islandia (Iceland), Finlandia (Finland), and Livonia
Livonia
( Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia)
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Laptev Sea
The Laptev Sea
Sea
(Russian: мо́ре Ла́птевых, tr. more Laptevykh; Sakha: Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the northern coast of Siberia, the Taimyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya
Severnaya Zemlya
and the New Siberian Islands. Its northern boundary passes from the Arctic Cape
Arctic Cape
to a point with co-ordinates of 79°N and 139°E, and ends at the Anisiy Cape
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J.R.R. Tolkien
First World WarBattle of the SommeJohn Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE FRSL (/ˈtɒlkiːn/;[a] 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, from 1945 to 1959.[1] He was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings
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Germanic Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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