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Wallace Line
The WALLACE LINE or WALLACE\'S LINE is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
that separates the ecozones of Asia
Asia
and Wallacea
Wallacea
, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia
Australia
. West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. Wallace noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies
East Indies
in the 19th century. The line runs through Indonesia
Indonesia
, between Borneo
Borneo
and Sulawesi (Celebes), and through the Lombok Strait
Lombok Strait
between Bali
Bali
and Lombok
Lombok

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Last Glacial Maximum
The LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM (LGM) was the last period in the Earth
Earth
's climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their maximum positions in about 26.5 kya . Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere between approximately 20 kya and in Antarctica approximately 14.5 kya, which is consistent with evidence that it was the primary source for an abrupt rise in the sea level in about 14.5 kya. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, and Asia. The ice sheets profoundly affected Earth's climate by causing drought, desertification, and a dramatic drop in sea levels. It was followed by the Late Glacial
Late Glacial

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Lombok Strait
The LOMBOK STRAIT (Indonesian : Selat Lombok), is a strait connecting the Java Sea
Java Sea
to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, and is located between the islands of Bali
Bali
and Lombok
Lombok
in Indonesia
Indonesia
. The Gili Islands are on the Lombok side. Its narrowest point is at its southern opening, with a width of about 20 km (12 miles) between the islands of Lombok
Lombok
and Nusa Penida
Nusa Penida
, in the middle of the strait. At the northern opening, it is 40 km (25 miles) across. Its total length is about 60 km (37 miles). Because it is 250 m (820 feet) deep — much deeper than the Strait
Strait
of Malacca — ships that draw too much water to pass through Malacca (so-called "post Malaccamax
Malaccamax
" vessels) often use the Lombok
Lombok
Strait, instead
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Alfred Russel Wallace
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE OM FRS (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a British naturalist , explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection ; his paper on the subject was jointly published with some of Charles Darwin 's writings in 1858. This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in _On the Origin of Species ._ Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago , where he identified the faunal divide now termed the Wallace Line , which separates the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna reflect Australasia . He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography "
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Terrestrial Ecozone
A BIOGEOGRAPHIC REALM or ECOZONE is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided in ecoregions , which are classified in biomes or habitat types. The realms delineate large areas of the Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans , broad deserts , or high mountain ranges , that constitute barriers to migration. As such, biogeographic realms designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Biogeographic realms correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology . Biogeographic realms are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain
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Asia
Major Cities of Asia List of cities in Asia List * Tokyo Chongqing Karachi Seoul
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Wallacea
WALLACEA is a biogeographical designation for a group of mainly Indonesian islands separated by deep-water straits from the Asian and Australian continental shelves . Wallacea
Wallacea
includes Sulawesi , the largest island in the group, as well as Lombok
Lombok
, Sumbawa , Flores
Flores
, Sumba
Sumba
, Timor
Timor
, Halmahera
Halmahera
, Buru , Seram , and many smaller islands
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney NATIONAL LANGUAGE English RELIGION * 52.1% Christianity * 30.1% No religion * 9.6% Not stated or unclear * 2.6%
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East Indies
The EAST INDIES or INDIES are the lands of South and Southeast Asia . In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago . The name "Indies" is derived from the river Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence (except Vietnam which is in the Chinese cultural sphere ). Dutch-held colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence , while Spanish-held colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the US conquest and later Philippines' independence. The East Indies may also include the former French-held Indochina , former British territories Brunei and Singapore , and former Portuguese East Timor
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by
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Borneo
BORNEO (/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/ ; Malay : _PULAU BORNEO_, Indonesian : _KALIMANTAN_) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia
Asia
. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java
Java
, west of Sulawesi , and east of Sumatra
Sumatra
. The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
in the north, and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan
Labuan
is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo
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Sulawesi
SULAWESI, formerly known as CELEBES (/ˈsɛlᵻbiːz/ or /sᵻˈliːbiːz/ ), is an island in Indonesia . One of the four Greater Sunda Islands , and the world\'s eleventh-largest island , it is situated east of Borneo , west of the Maluku Islands , and south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago . Within Indonesia, only Sumatra , Borneo and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations. Flag of Sulawesi The landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula ; the East Peninsula ; the South Peninsula ; and the South-east Peninsula
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Bali
BALI (Balinese : ᬩᬮᬶ, Indonesian : _Pulau Bali_, _Provinsi Bali_) is an island and province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The province includes the island of Bali
Bali
and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida , Nusa Lembongan , and Nusa Ceningan . It is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands , between Java
Java
to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar , is located in the southern part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesia\'s Hindu minority . According to the 2010 Census, 83.5% of Bali's population adhered to Balinese Hinduism , followed by 13.4% Muslim
Muslim
, Christianity
Christianity
at 2.5%, and Buddhism
Buddhism
0.5%
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Lombok
LOMBOK is an island in West Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
province, Indonesia
Indonesia
. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands , with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali
Bali
to the west and the Alas Strait
Alas Strait
between it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" ( Sekotong Peninsula ) to the southwest, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) across and a total area of about 4,514 square kilometres (1,743 square miles). The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram . It is somewhat similar in size and density with neighboring Bali
Bali
and shares some cultural heritage, but is administratively part of Nusa Tenggara Barat along with sparsely populated Sumbawa . It is surrounded by a number of smaller islands locally called Gili
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Bat
BATS are mammals of the order CHIROPTERA (/kaɪˈrɒptərə/ ; from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: πτερόν – pteron, "wing" ) whose forelimbs form webbed wings , making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight . By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels , gliding possums , and colugos , can only glide for short distances. Bats are less efficient at flying than birds , but are more manoeuvrable, using their very long spread-out digits which are covered with a thin membrane or patagium . Bats are the second largest order of mammals (after the rodents ), representing about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with about 1,240 bat species divided into two suborders: the less specialized and largely fruit-eating megabats , or flying foxes, and the highly specialized and echolocating microbats
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