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Wallace Line
The Wallace Line
Wallace Line
or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia
Asia
and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia
Asia
and Australia. West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. Wallace noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies
East Indies
in the 19th century. The line runs through Indonesia, between Borneo
Borneo
and Sulawesi (Celebes), and through the Lombok Strait
Lombok Strait
between Bali
Bali
and Lombok
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Last Glacial Maximum
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, and Asia. The ice sheets profoundly affected Earth's climate by causing drought, desertification, and a dramatic drop in sea levels.[1] Growth of the ice sheets reached its maximum at about 26.5 kBP. Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere at approximately 20 kBP and in Antarctica
Antarctica
approximately at 14.5 kBP, which is consistent with evidence that it was the primary source for an abrupt rise in the sea level at about 14.5 kBP.[2] The LGM is referred to in Britain as the Dimlington Stadial i
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Ernst Mayr
Ernst Walter Mayr (/ˈmaɪər/; 5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005)[1][2] was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists. He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, ornithologist, philosopher of biology, and historian of science.[3] His work contributed to the conceptual revolution that led to the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics, systematics, and Darwinian evolution, and to the development of the biological species concept. Although Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and others posited that multiple species could evolve from a single common ancestor, the mechanism by which this occurred was not understood, creating the species problem. Ernst Mayr approached the problem with a new definition for species
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New Guinea
New Guinea
New Guinea
(Tok Pisin: Niugini; Dutch: Nieuw-Guinea; German: Neuguinea; Indonesian: Papua or, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and Oceania. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea
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Marsupial
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia
Australasia
and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, possums, opossums, wombats, and Tasmanian devils. Some lesser-known marsupials are the potoroo and the quokka. Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians. Like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to relatively undeveloped young that often reside in a pouch located on their mothers’ abdomen for a certain amount of time. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur on the Australian continent (the mainland, Tasmania, New Guinea
New Guinea
and nearby islands)
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Thomas Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
PC PRS FLS (/ˈhʌksli/; 4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.[2] Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce
Samuel Wilberforce
was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford
Oxford
on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin
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Zoological Society Of London
The Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
(ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. It was founded in 1826.Contents1 History 2 The Institute of Zoology 3 Zoos and publications 4 Awards 5 Fellows 6 Honorary Fellows 7 Council 8 Presidents 9 Secretaries 10 Notes 11 External linksHistory[edit]Sir Joseph Banks’ house was the initial meeting place for the Zoological Society Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
(ZSL), Main Building by John Belcher and John James Joass Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
(ZSL), Main Building, EntranceOn 29 November 1822, the birthday of John Ray, “the father of modern zoology”, a meeting held in the Linnean Society
Linnean Society
in Soho Square led by Rev
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Evolution
Evolution
Evolution
is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.[1][2] Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.[3] Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences.[4] These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life" based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics), using both existing species and fossils
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Joseph Dalton Hooker
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
OM GCSI CB PRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century
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Asa Gray
Asa Gray
Asa Gray
(November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.[1][2] His Darwiniana was considered an important explanation of how religion and science were not necessarily mutually exclusive. Gray was adamant that a genetic connection must exist between all members of a species. He was also strongly opposed to the ideas of hybridization within one generation and special creation in the sense of its not allowing for evolution, as he felt evolution was guided by a Creator. As a professor of botany at Harvard University
Harvard University
for several decades, Gray regularly visited, and corresponded with, many of the leading natural scientists of the era, including Charles Darwin, who held great regard for him
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Charles Darwin
Tertiary education: University of Edinburgh Medical School
University of Edinburgh Medical School
(medicine, no degree) Christ's College, Cambridge
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Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
PC PRS FLS (/ˈhʌksli/; 4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.[2] Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce
Samuel Wilberforce
was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford
Oxford
on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin
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Mactan
Mactan
Mactan
or Maktan[citation needed] is a densely populated island located a few kilometres (~1 mile) from Cebu Island in the Philippines. The island is part of Cebu Province
Cebu Province
and it is divided into Lapu-Lapu
Lapu-Lapu
City and the municipality of Cordova. The island is separated from Cebu by the Mactan Channel
Mactan Channel
which is crossed by two bridges: the Marcelo Fernan Bridge
Marcelo Fernan Bridge
and the Mactan-Mandaue Bridge. The island covers some 65 square kilometres (25 sq mi) and is home to some 470,000 people,[1] making it the nation's most densely populated island
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Continental Shelf
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods. The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment
Sediment
from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise
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Sahul Shelf
Geologically, the Sahul Shelf /səˈhuːl/ is part of the continental shelf of the Australian continent and lies off the coast of mainland Australia.Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Geology 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The name "Sahull" or "Sahoel" appeared on 17th century Dutch maps applied to a submerged sandbank between Australia and Timor. On his 1803 map, Matthew Flinders noted the "Great Sahul Shoal" where Malays came from Makassar to fish for trepang (sea cucumber).[1] The Sahul and Sunda shelves were given their present names by G.A.F. Molengraaff and Max Wilhelm Carl Weber in 1919.[1] Geography[edit] The Sahul Shelf proper stretches northwest from Australia much of the way under the Timor Sea towards Timor, ending where the seabed begins descending into the Timor Trough. Another part of the Sahul Shelf is known also as the Arafura Shelf and runs all the way from the northern coast of Australia under the Arafura Sea to New Guinea
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