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Wallace Line
The WALLACE LINE or WALLACE\'S LINE is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
that separates the ecozones of Asia
Asia
and Wallacea
Wallacea
, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia
Australia
. West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. Wallace noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies in the 19th century. The line runs through Indonesia
Indonesia
, between Borneo
Borneo
and Sulawesi (Celebes), and through the Lombok Strait between Bali
Bali
and Lombok . The distance between Bali
Bali
and Lombok is small, about 35 kilometres (22 mi). The distributions of many bird species observe the line, since many birds do not cross even the smallest stretches of open ocean water. Some bats have distributions that cross the line, but other mammals are generally limited to one side or the other; an exception is the crab-eating macaque . Other groups of plants and animals show differing patterns, but the overall pattern is striking and reasonably consistent. Flora
Flora
do not follow the Wallace Line
Wallace Line
to the same extent as fauna
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Last Glacial Maximum
The LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM (LGM) was the last period in the Earth 's climate history during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension. Growth of the ice sheets reached their maximum positions in about 26.5 kya . Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere between approximately 20 kya and in Antarctica approximately 14.5 kya, which is consistent with evidence that it was the primary source for an abrupt rise in the sea level in about 14.5 kya. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, and Asia. The ice sheets profoundly affected Earth's climate by causing drought, desertification, and a dramatic drop in sea levels. It was followed by the Late Glacial . CONTENTS * 1 Glacial climate * 2 World impact * 2.1 Europe * 2.2 Asia * 2.3 Africa and the Middle East * 2.4 Australasia * 2.5 North America * 2.6 South America * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links GLACIAL CLIMATE Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years. A map of vegetation patterns during the last glacial maximum. The formation of an ice sheet or ice cap requires both prolonged cold and precipitation (snow ). Hence, despite having temperatures similar to those of glaciated areas in North America and Europe , East Asia remained unglaciated except at higher elevations
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Lombok Strait
The LOMBOK STRAIT (Indonesian : Selat Lombok), is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean , and is located between the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia . The Gili Islands are on the Lombok side. Its narrowest point is at its southern opening, with a width of about 20 km (12 miles) between the islands of Lombok and Nusa Penida , in the middle of the strait. At the northern opening, it is 40 km (25 miles) across. Its total length is about 60 km (37 miles). Because it is 250 m (820 feet) deep — much deeper than the Strait of Malacca — ships that draw too much water to pass through Malacca (so-called "post Malaccamax " vessels) often use the Lombok Strait, instead. The Lombok Strait is notable as one of the main passages for the Indonesian Throughflow that exchanges water between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean . It is also part of the biogeographical boundary between the fauna of Indomalaya ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia . The boundary is known as the Wallace Line , for Alfred Russel Wallace , who first remarked upon the striking difference between animals of Indo-Malaysia from those of Australasia and how abrupt the boundary was between the two biomes
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Alfred Russel Wallace
ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE OM FRS (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a British naturalist , explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection ; his paper on the subject was jointly published with some of Charles Darwin 's writings in 1858. This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in _On the Origin of Species ._ Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago , where he identified the faunal divide now termed the Wallace Line , which separates the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna reflect Australasia . He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography ". Wallace was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made many other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection. These included the concept of warning colouration in animals, and the Wallace effect , a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridisation
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Terrestrial Ecozone
A BIOGEOGRAPHIC REALM or ECOZONE is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided in ecoregions , which are classified in biomes or habitat types. The realms delineate large areas of the Earth's surface within which organisms have been evolving in relative isolation over long periods of time, separated from one another by geographic features, such as oceans , broad deserts , or high mountain ranges , that constitute barriers to migration. As such, biogeographic realms designations are used to indicate general groupings of organisms based on their shared biogeography. Biogeographic realms correspond to the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology . Biogeographic realms are characterized by the evolutionary history of the organisms they contain. They are distinct from biomes , also known as major habitat types, which are divisions of the Earth's surface based on life form, or the adaptation of animals, fungi, micro-organisms and plants to climatic, soil , and other conditions. Biomes are characterized by similar climax vegetation . Each realm may include a number of different biomes
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Asia
Major Cities of Asia List of cities in Asia List * Tokyo Chongqing Karachi Seoul Shanghai Beijing Guangzhou Mumbai Delhi Manila Wuhan Osaka Tianjin Jakarta Kolkata Dhaka Shenzhen Lahore Shenyang Tehran Bangkok Nagoya Hong Kong Taipei Kuala Lumpur ASIA (/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen )) is Earth 's largest and most populous continent , located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and shares the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia with both Europe and Africa . Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population , was the site of many of the first civilizations
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Wallacea
WALLACEA is a biogeographical designation for a group of mainly Indonesian islands separated by deep-water straits from the Asian and Australian continental shelves . Wallacea
Wallacea
includes Sulawesi
Sulawesi
, the largest island in the group, as well as Lombok , Sumbawa
Sumbawa
, Flores
Flores
, Sumba
Sumba
, Timor
Timor
, Halmahera , Buru , Seram , and many smaller islands. The islands of Wallacea
Wallacea
lie between Sundaland (the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
, Sumatra
Sumatra
, Borneo
Borneo
, Java , and Bali
Bali
) to the west, and Near Oceania including Australia
Australia
and New Guinea
New Guinea
to the south and east. The total land area of Wallacea
Wallacea
is 347,000 km²
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney NATIONAL LANGUAGE English RELIGION * 52.1% Christianity * 30.1% No religion * 9.6% Not stated or unclear * 2.6% Islam * 2.5% Buddhism * 1.9% Hinduism * 0.8% Other religions * 0.4% Judaism
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East Indies
The EAST INDIES or INDIES are the lands of South and Southeast Asia . In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago . The name "Indies" is derived from the river Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence (except Vietnam which is in the Chinese cultural sphere ). Dutch-held colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence , while Spanish-held colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the US conquest and later Philippines' independence. The East Indies may also include the former French-held Indochina , former British territories Brunei and Singapore , and former Portuguese East Timor . It does not, however, include the former Dutch New Guinea western New Guinea (West Papua), which is geographically considered to be part of Melanesia . The inhabitants of the East Indies are almost never called East Indians, distinguishing them both from inhabitants of the Caribbean (which is also called the West Indies ) and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas who are often called "American Indians." In colonial times they were just "natives"
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Indonesian SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Indonesian * Malay * English * Dutch * Javanese * 700 others RELIGI
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Borneo
BORNEO (/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/ ; Malay : _PULAU BORNEO_, Indonesian : _KALIMANTAN_) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia
Asia
. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java
Java
, west of Sulawesi , and east of Sumatra
Sumatra
. The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
in the north, and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan
Labuan
is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei
Brunei
, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. Antipodal to an area of Amazon rainforest , Borneo
Borneo
is itself home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world
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Sulawesi
SULAWESI, formerly known as CELEBES (/ˈsɛlᵻbiːz/ or /sᵻˈliːbiːz/ ), is an island in Indonesia . One of the four Greater Sunda Islands , and the world\'s eleventh-largest island , it is situated east of Borneo , west of the Maluku Islands , and south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago . Within Indonesia, only Sumatra , Borneo and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations. Flag of Sulawesi The landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula ; the East Peninsula ; the South Peninsula ; and the South-east Peninsula . Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: the Gulf of Tomini between the northern Minahasa and East peninsulas; the Tolo Gulf between the East and Southeast peninsulas; and the Bone Gulf between the South and Southeast peninsulas. The Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and separates the island from Borneo
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Bali
BALI (Balinese : ᬩᬮᬶ, Indonesian : _Pulau Bali_, _Provinsi Bali_) is an island and province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The province includes the island of Bali
Bali
and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida , Nusa Lembongan , and Nusa Ceningan . It is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands , between Java
Java
to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar , is located in the southern part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesia\'s Hindu minority . According to the 2010 Census, 83.5% of Bali's population adhered to Balinese Hinduism , followed by 13.4% Muslim
Muslim
, Christianity
Christianity
at 2.5%, and Buddhism
Buddhism
0.5%. Bali
Bali
is a popular tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy. It is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking, and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali
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Lombok
LOMBOK is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia
Indonesia
. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali
Bali
to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa
Sumbawa
to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" ( Sekotong Peninsula ) to the southwest, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) across and a total area of about 4,514 square kilometres (1,743 square miles). The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram . It is somewhat similar in size and density with neighboring Bali
Bali
and shares some cultural heritage, but is administratively part of Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara
Barat along with sparsely populated Sumbawa
Sumbawa
. It is surrounded by a number of smaller islands locally called Gili . The island was home to some 3.17 million Indonesians as recorded in the decennial 2010 census; the latest estimate (for January 2014) gives the population as 3,311,044
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics . The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs , though a 2017 paper has put them in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida , along with the Ornithischia . True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, around 120 million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages
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Bat
BATS are mammals of the order CHIROPTERA (/kaɪˈrɒptərə/ ; from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and Ancient Greek <