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Wallace Line
The WALLACE LINE or WALLACE\'S LINE is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
that separates the ecozones of Asia
Asia
and Wallacea
Wallacea
, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia
Australia
. West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin is present. Wallace noticed this clear division during his travels through the East Indies
East Indies
in the 19th century. The line runs through Indonesia
Indonesia
, between Borneo
Borneo
and Sulawesi (Celebes), and through the Lombok Strait between Bali
Bali
and Lombok
Lombok

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Ernst Mayr
ERNST WALTER MAYR (/ˈmaɪər/ ; 5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists . He was also a renowned taxonomist , tropical explorer, ornithologist , philosopher of biology , and historian of science . His work contributed to the conceptual revolution that led to the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics , systematics , and Darwinian evolution , and to the development of the biological species concept . Although Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and others posited that multiple species could evolve from a single common ancestor , the mechanism by which this occurred was not understood, creating the species problem . Ernst Mayr approached the problem with a new definition for species
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Charles Darwin
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/ ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist , geologist and biologist , best known for his contributions to the science of evolution . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace , introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact
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Thomas Henry Huxley
THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY PC PRS FLS (/ˈhʌksli/ ; 4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy . He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution . Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford
Oxford
on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers , the author of Vestiges , he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen , against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism , and was undecided about natural selection , but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin
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Biogeography
BIOGEOGRAPHY is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time . Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude , elevation , isolation and habitat area . Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals. Knowledge of spatial variation in the numbers and types of organisms is as vital to us today as it was to our early human ancestors , as we adapt to heterogeneous but geographically predictable environments . Biogeography
Biogeography
is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology , evolutionary biology , geology , and physical geography
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Sea Level
MEAN SEA LEVEL (MSL) (abbreviated simply SEA LEVEL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth\'s oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation , or, in aviation , as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels . A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales . The careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change , and sea level rise has been widely quoted as evidence of ongoing global warming
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Asa Gray
ASA GRAY (November 18, 1810 – January 30, 1888) is considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century. His Darwiniana was considered an important explanation of how religion and science were not necessarily mutually exclusive. Gray was adamant that a genetic connection must exist between all members of a species. He was also strongly opposed to the ideas of hybridization within one generation and special creation in the sense of its not allowing for evolution, as he felt evolution was guided by a Creator. As a professor of botany at Harvard University for several decades, Gray regularly visited, and corresponded with, many of the leading natural scientists of the era, including Charles Darwin , who held great regard for him. Gray made several trips to Europe to collaborate with leading European scientists of the era, as well as trips to the southern and western United States
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Joseph Dalton Hooker
SIR JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER OM GCSI CB PRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century. He was a founder of geographical botany and Charles Darwin\'s closest friend. For twenty years he served as director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew , succeeding his father, William Jackson Hooker , and was awarded the highest honours of British science
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Marsupial
MARSUPIALS are any members of the mammalian infraclass MARSUPIALIA. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia
Australasia
and the Americas
Americas
. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch . Well-known marsupials include kangaroos , wallabies , koalas , possums , opossums , wombats , Tasmanian devils , and the recently extinct thylacines . Others include the numbat , the bandicoot , the bettong , the bilby , the quoll , the quokka , and the Potoroo . Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians . Like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to relatively undeveloped young that often reside with the mother in a pouch, for a certain amount of time
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Thomas Huxley
THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY PC PRS FLS (/ˈhʌksli/ ; 4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy . He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution . Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce
Samuel Wilberforce
was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford
Oxford
on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers , the author of Vestiges , he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen
Richard Owen
, against whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism , and was undecided about natural selection , but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin
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Zoological Society Of London
The ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats . It was founded in 1826
1826
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The Institute of Zoology * 3 Zoos and publications * 4 Awards * 5 Fellows * 6 Honorary Fellows * 7 Council * 8 Presidents * 9 Secretaries * 10 Notes * 11 External links HISTORY Sir Joseph Banks’ house was the initial meeting place for the Zoological Society Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
(ZSL), Main Building by John Belcher and John James Joass Zoological Society of London (ZSL), Main Building, Entrance On 29 November 1822, the birthday of John Ray , “the father of modern zoology”, a meeting held in the Linnean Society in Soho Square led by Rev
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Evolution
EVOLUTION is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations . Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation , including the levels of species , individual organisms , and molecules . Repeated formation of new species (speciation ), change within species (anagenesis ), and loss of species (extinction ) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences . These shared traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor , and can be used to reconstruct a biological "tree of life " based on evolutionary relationships (phylogenetics ), using both existing species and fossils
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Continental Shelf
The CONTINENTAL SHELF is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent , resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a SHELF SEA. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods . The shelf surrounding an island is known as an INSULAR SHELF. The continental margin , between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain , comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0.5–1°
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Sunda Shelf
Geologically , the SUNDA SHELF is a southeast extension of the continental shelf of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. Major landmasses on the shelf include the Malay Peninsula , Sumatra
Sumatra
, Borneo
Borneo
, Java , Madura , Bali and their surrounding smaller islands. It covers an area of approximately 1.85 million km2. Sea depths over the shelf rarely exceed 50 metres and extensive areas are less than 20 metres resulting in strong bottom friction and strong tidal friction. Steep undersea gradients separate the Sunda Shelf
Sunda Shelf
from the Philippines
Philippines
, Sulawesi , and the Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands

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Tree Kangaroo
about 12; see text. TREE-KANGAROOS are marsupials of the genus Dendrolagus, adapted for arboreal locomotion . They inhabit the tropical rainforests of New Guinea , far northeastern Queensland
Queensland
, and some of the islands in the region. Most tree-kangaroos are considered threatened due to hunting and habitat destruction . They are the only true arboreal macropods . CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Species * 3 Distribution and habitat * 4 Description * 5 Behaviour * 5.1 Locomotion * 5.2 Diet * 5.3 Reproduction * 6 Orphaned tree-kangaroo * 7 Threats * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links EVOLUTIONThe evolutionary history of tree-kangaroos begins with a rainforest floor-dwelling pademelon -like ancestor. This ancestor evolved from an arboreal possum-like ancestor as is suspected of all macropodid marsupials in Australia and New Guinea
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Spiny Anteater
Genus Tachyglossus T. aculeatus Genus Zaglossus Z. attenboroughi Z. bruijnii Z. bartoni †Z. hacketti †Z. robustus Genus †Megalibgwilia †M. ramsayi †M. robusta ECHIDNAS (/ɪˈkɪdnə/ ), sometimes known as SPINY ANTEATERS, belong to the family TACHYGLOSSIDAE in the monotreme order of egg -laying mammals . The four extant species, together with the platypus , are the only surviving members of the order Monotremata and are the only living mammals that lay eggs. The diet of some species consists of ants and termites, but they are not closely related to the true anteaters of the Americas . Echidnas live in Australia and New Guinea . Echidnas evidently evolved between 20 and 50 million years ago, descending from a platypus-like monotreme. This ancestor was aquatic, but echidnas adapted to life on land
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