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Wadaad's Writing
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic,[1] as well as the Arabic script
Arabic script
as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.[2] Originally, it referred to an ungrammatical Arabic featuring some words in Somali, with the proportion of Somali vocabulary terms varying depending on the context.[3] Alongside standard Arabic, wadaad writing was used by Somali religious men (wadaado) to record xeer (customary law) petitions and to write qasidas.[1][4] It was also used by merchants for business and letter writing.[4] Over the years, various Somali scholars improved and altered the use of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for conveying Somali
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Stone Tablet
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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Sheikh Uways Al-Barawi
Sheikh Uways Al-Barawi (Arabic: أُوَيس البَراوي‎) (b. 1847–1909) was a Somali scholar credited with reviving Islam
Islam
in 19th century East Africa.Contents1 Early life 2 Journey to Baghdad 3 Journey home 4 Death 5 Influence 6 See also 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Sheikh Uways was born in Barawa
Barawa
on the Benadir
Benadir
of Somalia
Somalia
coast, the son of a local religious teacher, al- Hajj
Hajj
Muhammad
Muhammad
b. Bashiir, and Fatima b
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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School Of Oriental And African Studies
The Orient
Orient
is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, divided into the Far East, Middle East, and Near East. The term Oriental is sometimes used to describe people or objects from the Orient.Contents1 Derivation 2 History of the term 3 Current usage3.1 British English 3.2 American English 3.3 Australian English 3.4 German4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 External linksDerivation[edit] The term "Orient" derives from the Latin word oriens meaning "east" (lit. "rising" < orior " rise")
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Kaddare Alphabet
The Kaddare alphabet
Kaddare alphabet
is a writing script created to transcribe Somali, an Afro-Asiatic language.Contents1 History 2 Form 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit] The orthography was invented in 1952 by Sheikh Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare of the Abgaal Hawiye clan. A phonetically robust writing system, the technical commissions that appraised the Kaddare script concurred that it was a very accurate orthography for transcribing Somali.[1] Form[edit] Cursive
Cursive
writing of KaddareThe Kaddare script uses both upper and lower case letters, with the lower case represented in cursive
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Somali Grammar
Somali is an agglutinative language, using a large number of affixes and particles to determine and alter the meaning of words.Contents1 Morphology1.1 Nouns1.1.1 Absolutive case 1.1.2 Nominative case 1.1.3 Genitive case 1.1.4 Vocative case 1.1.5 Gender 1.1.6 Number1.2 Pronouns 1.3 Verbs1.3.1 Infinitive and verbal nouns 1.3.2 Pareto principle 1.3.3 Indicative mood1.3.3.1 Present 1.3.3.2 Past 1.3.3.3 Present continuous 1.3.3.4 Past continuous 1.3.3.5 Future1.3.4 Subjunctive mood2 Syntax 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesMorphology[edit] As in other related Afroasiatic languages, Somali nouns are inflected for gender, number and case. Affixes change according to a number of rules. The definite article is a suffix, with the basic form being -ki or -ka for masculine nouns and -ti or -ta for female nouns. The k or t is the actual article marker, although it can change depending on the preceding consonant, with the following vowel determined by the case of the noun
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Linguist
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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British Somaliland
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland
Somaliland
Protectorate (Somali: Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, Arabic: الصومال البريطاني‎, translit. Al-Sumal Al-Britaniy) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland
Somaliland
and Ethiopia. From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa. On June 26, 1960, British Somaliland
Somaliland
declared independence as the State of Somaliland
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Bravanese Language
Bravanese, also called Chimwiini (ChiMwini, Mwiini, Mwini) or Chimbalazi[4]) is a variety of Swahili patwa spoken by the Bravanese people, who are the predominant inhabitants of Barawa, or Brava, in Somalia.[5] Maho (2009) considers it a distinct dialect. See also[edit]Bravanese peopleNotes[edit]^ Ethnologue report for Somalia ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mwini". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online ^ I. M. Lewis, Islam in tropical Africa, Volume 1964, (International African Institute in association with Indiana University Press: 1980), p.7. ^ Abdullahi, p.11.References[edit]Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and customs of Somalia. Greenwood
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Swahili Language
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language[7]), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people
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Barawa
Barawa
Barawa
(Somali: Baraawe, Arabic: مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة‎ Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle
Lower Shebelle
region of Somalia. Barawa
Barawa
is the capital of southwestern Somalia
Somalia
stateContents1 History1.1 Medieval 1.2 Contemporary2 Politics 3 Demographics 4 Gallery 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksHistory[edit] Medieval[edit] Main articles: Ajuran Sultanate, Geledi Sultanate, and Somali aristocratic and court titles In the 16th century, Barawa, which was then part of the Ajuran Empire, was sacked by the Portuguese during the Battle of Barawa
Barawa
but quickly recovered from the attack.[1] In 1840, soldiers of the Bardheere Jama'a took the city under siege while attempting to discover a more direct sea route, and inflicted much damage
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Qadiriyyah
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi JaririSunni schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t ePart of a series on Islam Su
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