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WBUR
WBUR-FM
WBUR-FM
(90.9 FM ) is a public radio station located in Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, owned by Boston
Boston
University . WBUR is the largest of three NPR member stations in Boston, along with WGBH and WUMB-FM . WBUR produces several nationally distributed programs, including _Car Talk
Talk
_, _ On Point _, _ Only A Game _, _Here and Now _ and _Open Source _, and previously produced _The Connection _ (which was canceled on August 5, 2005). _RadioBoston_, launched in 2007, is WBUR's only purely local show. WBUR's positioning statement is "Boston's NPR News Station." WBUR also carries its programming on two other stations serving Cape Cod and the Islands : WBUH (89.1 FM) in Brewster , and WBUA (92.7 FM) in Tisbury . The latter station, located on Martha\'s Vineyard , uses the frequency formerly occupied by WMVY . In 1998, WBUR helped launch WRNI in Providence, Rhode Island —the first NPR station within Rhode Island's borders. It has since sold the station to a local group. According to Ken Mills, a Minneapolis broadcast consultant and Nielsen data , the number of listeners of WBUR has grown since 2012, increasing from 409,000 to 534,400. WBUR is the sixth most popular NPR news station in the United States
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City Of License
In American , Canadian and Philippine broadcasting, a CITY OF LICENSE or COMMUNITY OF LICENSE is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator. In North American broadcast law, the concept of _community of license_ dates to the early days of AM radio broadcasting. The requirement that a broadcasting station operate a _main studio_ within a prescribed distance of the community which the station is licensed to serve appears in U.S. law as early as 1939. Various specific obligations have been applied to broadcasters by governments to fulfill public policy objectives of broadcast localism , both in radio and later also in television, based on the legislative presumption that a broadcaster fills a similar role to that held by community newspaper publishers
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Boston
BOSTON (pronounced /ˈbɒstən/ (_ listen ) BOSS-tən_ ) is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States . It is also the seat of Suffolk County , although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 673,184 in 2016, making it the largest city in New England and the 23rd most populous city in the United States. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England . It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution , such as the Boston Massacre , the Boston Tea Party , the Battle of Bunker Hill , and the Siege of Boston . Upon U.S. independence from Great Britain , it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture
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Greater Boston
GREATER BOSTON is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston , the capital of the US state of Massachusetts , and the most populous city in New England , as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a broader combined statistical area (CSA). The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod ; while the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Manchester (the largest city in the US state of New Hampshire ), Providence (the capital and largest city of the US state of Rhode Island ), Worcester, Massachusetts (the second largest city in New England ), as well as the South Coast region and Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American history and industry . The region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology , engineering , higher education , finance , and maritime trade
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Slogan
A SLOGAN is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan , political , commercial , religious , and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The _Oxford Dictionary of English _ defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." (Stevenson, 2010) A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and appealing to the audience. (Lim they were used primarily as passwords to ensure proper recognition of individuals at night or in the confusion of battle. LIKABILITYCrimmins' (2000, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's (1993, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components. These include, name, logo and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand (Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014). Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message very clear and concise
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Frequency
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time . It is also referred to as TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency . The PERIOD is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats ). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (sound ) signals, radio waves , and light . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Units * 3 Period versus frequency * 4 Related types of frequency * 5 In wave propagation * 6 Measurement * 6.1 Counting * 6.2 Stroboscope * 6.3 Frequency counter * 6.4 Heterodyne methods * 7 Examples * 7.1 Light * 7.2 Sound * 7.3 Line current * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DEFINITIONS As time elapses—here moving left to right on the horizontal axis—the five sinusoidal waves vary, or cycle, regularly at different rates
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HD Radio
HD RADIO is a trademarked term for iBiquity 's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal , providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality). The HD format also provides the means for a single radio station to simultaneously broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel. It was selected by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States. It is officially known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-C. Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra , Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) (Eureka 147), Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM30 and DRM+
DRM+
configurations), and Compatible AM-Digital (CAM-D)
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Repeater
In telecommunications , a REPEATER is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction. Some types of repeaters broadcast an identical signal, but alter its method of transmission, for example, on another frequency or baud rate . There are several different types of repeaters; a TELEPHONE REPEATER is an amplifier in a telephone line , an optical repeater is an optoelectronic circuit that amplifies the light beam in an optical fiber cable ; and a radio repeater is a radio receiver and transmitter that retransmits a radio signal. A broadcast relay station is a repeater used in broadcast radio and television . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Types * 2.1 Telephone repeater * 2.2 Optical communications repeater * 2.3 Radio repeater * 3 Data
Data
handling * 3.1 Analog repeater * 3.2 Digital repeater * 4 Telephone repeater * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWWhen an information-bearing signal passes through a communication channel , it is progressively degraded due to loss of power. For example, when a telephone call passes through a wire telephone line , some of the power in the electric current which represents the audio signal is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the copper wire
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1950 In Radio
The year 1950 saw a number of significant happenings in RADIO BROADCASTING history. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Debuts * 3 Closings * 4 Births * 5 Deaths * 6 References EVENTS * 15 March – The Copenhagen Frequency Plan is implemented by broadcasters throughout Europe. * 1 May – Springbok Radio , South Africa's first commercial radio station, takes to the airwaves. It will broadcast for 35 years, until 31 December 1985. * 5 June – In the Federal Republic of Germany , Bayerischer Rundfunk , Hessischer Rundfunk , Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk , Radio Bremen , Süddeutscher Rundfunk , and Südwestfunk jointly establish the ARD consortium of public broadcasting authorities.DEBUTS * 1 January - Hopalong Cassidy debuts on Mutual . * 6 January - The Halls of Ivy debuts on NBC . * 22 January - The Adventures of Christopher London debuts on NBC . * 30 January - Mark Trail debuts on Mutual * 1 February - Big Jon and Sparkie debuts on ABC . * 6 February – Dangerous Assignment debuts on NBC . * 12 February – WPAW Pawtucket, Rhode Island signs on for the first time. * 19 April – WTSA Brattleboro, Vermont signs on for the first time. * 7 May - The Big Guy debuts on NBC . * 7 May - Cloak and Dagger debuts on NBC
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Radio Format
A RADIO FORMAT or PROGRAMMING FORMAT (not to be confused with broadcast programming ) describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station . In countries where radio spectrum use is legally regulated (such as by OFCOM in the UK), formats may have a legal status where stations are licensed to transmit only specific formats. Radio formats are frequently employed as a marketing tool, and are subject to frequent change. Music radio , old time radio , all-news radio , sports radio , talk radio and weather radio describe the operation of different genres of radio format and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats. CONTENTS* 1 List of formats * 1.1 Music-oriented formats * 1.1.1 Pop/Adult Contemporary * 1.1.2 Rock/Alternative/Indie * 1.1.3 Country * 1.1.4 Urban/Rhythmic * 1.1.5 Dance/Electronic * 1.1.6 Jazz/Blues/Standards * 1.1.7 Easy Listening/New Age * 1.1.8 Folk/Singer-Songwriters * 1.1.9 Latin * 1.1.10 International * 1.1.11 Christian/Gospel * 1.1.12 Classical * 1.1.13 Seasonal/Holiday/Happening * 1.1.14 Miscellanies * 1.2 Spoken word formats * 2 Regulation * 3 See also * 4 References LIST OF FORMATSFormats constantly evolve and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats. Some of the following formats are available only regionally or through specialized venues such as satellite radio or Internet radio
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News Radio
ALL-NEWS RADIO is a radio format devoted entirely to the discussion and broadcast of news . All-news radio is available in both local and syndicated forms, and is carried on both major US satellite radio networks. All-news stations can run the gamut from simulcasting an all-news television station like CNN
CNN
, to a "rip and read" headline service, to stations that include live coverage of news events and long-form public affairs programming. Many stations brand themselves Newsradio but only run news during the morning and afternoon drive times , or in some cases, broadcast talk radio shows with frequent news updates. These stations are properly labeled as "news/talk" stations. Also, some National Public Radio stations identify themselves as News
News
and Information stations, which means that in addition to running the NPR news magazines such as Morning Edition
Morning Edition
and All Things Considered , they run other information and public affairs programs
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Talk Radio
TALK RADIO may refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Radio * 1.1 Format * 1.2 Channels and stations * 2 Entertainment * 2.1 Films * 2.2 Plays * 2.3 Television RADIOFORMAT * Talk radio , a call-in discussion format for radio broadcastsCHANNELS AND STATIONS * Talk Radio (XM) , an XM radio channel with a talk radio format * Talkradio , a British national talk station * Talksport , a British radio station formerly called " Talk
Talk
Radio"ENTERTAINMENTFILMS * _ Talk
Talk
Radio_ (film) , a 1988 Oliver Stone film loosely based on the play and the life of Alan BergPLAYS * _ Talk
Talk
Radio_ (play) , a 1987 play written by Eric BogosianTELEVISION * " Talk
Talk
Radio" (_Sailor Moon_) , season 1, episode 3 of the anime _Sailor Moon_, used in the DiC/Optimum Productions English language dub This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title TALK RADIO. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk_Radio additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Effective Radiated Power
EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (ERP), synonymous with EQUIVALENT RADIATED POWER, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency (RF) power, such as that emitted by a radio transmitter . It is the total power in watts that would have to be radiated by a half-wave dipole antenna to give the same radiation intensity (signal strength in watts per square meter) as the actual source at a distant receiver located in the direction of the antenna's strongest beam (main lobe ). ERP measures the combination of the power emitted by the transmitter and the ability of the antenna to direct that power in a given direction. It is equal to the total power radiated, multiplied by the gain of the antenna. It is used in electronics and telecommunications , particularly in broadcasting to rate the apparent power of a broadcasting station experienced by listeners in its reception area. An alternate parameter that measures the same thing is _effective (or equivalent) isotropic radiated power _ (EIRP). Effective isotropic radiated power is the total power that would have to be radiated by a hypothetical isotropic antenna to give the same signal strength as the actual source in the direction of the antenna's strongest beam. The difference between EIRP and ERP is that ERP is the ratio of actual signal strength to that of a half-wave dipole antenna, while EIRP is the ratio to that of an isotropic antenna
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Watt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . Power has dimensions of M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio transmission * 6 Difference between watts, watt-hours and watts per hour * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton the rate at which work is done is 1 watt. 1 W = 1 J s = 1 N m s = 1 k g m 2 s 3 {displaystyle mathrm {1~W=1~{frac {J}{s}}=1~{frac {Ncdot m}{s}}=1~{frac {kgcdot m^{2}}{s^{3}}}} } In terms of electromagnetism , one watt is the rate at which work is done when one ampere (A) of current flows through an electrical potential difference of one volt (V). 1 W = 1 V A {displaystyle mathrm {1~W=1~Vcdot A} } Two additional unit conversions for watt can be found using the above equation and Ohm\'s Law
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Height Above Average Terrain
HEIGHT ABOVE AVERAGE TERRAIN (HAAT) (or less popularly, EHAAT, Effective Height Above Average Terrain) is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television , as it is more important than effective radiated power (ERP) in determining the range of broadcasts (VHF and UHF in particular, as they are line of sight transmissions). For international coordination, it is officially measured in meters, even by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States , as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover (see List of North American broadcast station classes for more information on this). The FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, and points at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 miles (16 km) radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station. The altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT