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W.V.O. Quine
WILLARD VAN ORMAN QUINE (/kwaɪn/ ; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) (known to intimates as "Van") was an American philosopher
American philosopher
and logician in the analytic tradition , recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University
Harvard University
in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory , and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978. A 2009 poll conducted among analytic philosophers named Quine as the fifth most important philosopher of the past two centuries
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Akron, Ohio
AKRON /ˈækrən/ is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
and is the county seat of Summit County . It is located on the western edge of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau , approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie . As of the 2015 Census
Census
Estimate, the city proper had a total population of 197,542, making it the 119th largest city in the United States . The Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) covers Summit and Portage counties, and in 2010 had a population of 703,200. It is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area , which in 2013 had a population of 3,501,538, ranking 15th. Co-founded along the Little Cuyahoga River in 1825 by Simon Perkins and Paul Williams, it was chosen as a strategic point at the summit of the developing Ohio
Ohio
and Erie Canal
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Ohio
OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States
United States
. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus . The state takes its name from the Ohio River
Ohio River
. The name originated from the Iroquois
Iroquois
word _ohi-yo'_, meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
) on March 1, 1803. Ohio
Ohio
is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye
Ohio buckeye
trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes"
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Boston
BOSTON (pronounced /ˈbɒstən/ (_ listen ) BOSS-tən_ ) is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States . It is also the seat of Suffolk County , although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 673,184 in 2016, making it the largest city in New England and the 23rd most populous city in the United States. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States
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Massachusetts
MASSACHUSETTS /ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsᵻts/ (_ listen ) mass-ə-CHOO-sits_ or /ˌmæsəˈtʃuːzᵻts/ _mass-ə-CHOO-zits_ ; officially the COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States . It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston . Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history , academia , and industry
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Oberlin College
OBERLIN COLLEGE is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio . The college was founded as the OBERLIN COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE in 1833 by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart. It is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music , part of the college, is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States. The College of Arts ">_ Partial View Oberlin_ by H. Alonzo Pease, 1838 Both the college and the town of Oberlin were founded in northern Ohio in 1833 by a pair of Presbyterian ministers, John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart
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Harvard University
HARVARD UNIVERSITY is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts , established in 1636, whose history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities. Established originally by the Massachusetts legislature and soon thereafter named for John Harvard (its first benefactor), Harvard is the United States\' oldest institution of higher learning , and the Harvard Corporation (formally, the _President and Fellows of Harvard College_) is its first chartered corporation . Although never formally affiliated with any denomination , the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites . Following the American Civil War , President Charles W
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Rolf Schock Prizes
The ROLF SCHOCK PRIZES were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933–1986). The prizes were first awarded in Stockholm
Stockholm
, Sweden, in 1993, and since 2005 are awarded every three years. Each recipient currently receives SEK 400,000 (ca. US $ 60,000). A similar prize is the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy
Philosophy
, established by the Inamori Foundation
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List Of Kyoto Prize Winners
This is a LIST OF KYOTO PRIZE WINNERS, awarded annually by the Inamori Foundation
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20th-century Philosophy
20TH-CENTURY PHILOSOPHY saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools— including logical positivism , analytic philosophy , phenomenology , existentialism , and poststructuralism . In terms of the eras of philosophy, it is usually labelled as _contemporary philosophy _ (succeeding modern philosophy , which runs roughly from the time of Descartes until the twentieth-century). As with other academic disciplines, philosophy increasingly became professionalized in the twentieth century, and a split emerged between philosophers who considered themselves part of either the "analytic" or "continental" traditions. However, there have been disputes regarding both the terminology and the reasons behind the divide, as well as philosophers who see themselves as bridging the divide. In addition, philosophy in the twentieth century became increasingly technical and harder for lay people to read
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Western Philosophy
WESTERN PHILOSOPHY or EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world . Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with Hellenic (i.e. Greek) philosophy of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word _philosophy_ itself originated from the Hellenic: _philosophia_ (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν _philein_, "to love" and σοφία _sophia _, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were _all_ intellectual endeavors
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Analytic Philosophy
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (sometimes ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments. The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to one of several things: * As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision, often making use of formal logic , conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree, mathematics and the natural sciences . * As a historical development, analytical philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , G. E
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Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: λογική, _logikḗ_ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" (but coming to mean "thought" or "reason"), is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments . A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, the conclusion of such an argument may be signified by words like _therefore_, _hence_, _ergo_ and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Ontology
ONTOLOGY is the philosophical study of the nature of being , becoming , existence and/or reality , as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly hypothetical, it also has practical application in information science and technology , such as ontology engineering
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e EPISTEMOLOGY (/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/ (_ listen ); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē_, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος_, logos _, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge . Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth , belief , and justification , (2) various problems of skepticism , (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher Ja