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W.V.O. Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
(/kwaɪn/; known to intimates as "Van";[2] June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher
American philosopher
and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century."[3] From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University
Harvard University
in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978
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Akron, Ohio
Akron (/ˈækrən/) is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Ohio
Ohio
and is the county seat of Summit County. It is located on the western edge of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, approximately 39 miles (63 km) south of Lake Erie. As of the 2015 Census
Census
Estimate, the city proper had a total population of 197,542, making it the 119th largest city in the United States. The Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) covers Summit and Portage counties, and in 2010 had a population of 703,200.[5] It is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area, which in 2013 had a population of 3,501,538, ranking 15th. Co-founded along the Little Cuyahoga River
Cuyahoga River
in 1825 by Simon Perkins and Paul Williams, it was chosen as a strategic point at the summit of the developing Ohio
Ohio
and Erie Canal
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Two Dogmas Of Empiricism
"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951. According to City University of New York professor of philosophy Peter Godfrey-Smith, this "paper [is] sometimes regarded as the most important in all of twentieth-century philosophy".[1] The paper is an attack on two central aspects of the logical positivists' philosophy. One is the analytic–synthetic distinction between analytic truths and synthetic truths, explained by Quine as truths grounded only in meanings and independent of facts, and truths grounded in facts. The other is reductionism, the theory that each meaningful statement gets its meaning from some logical construction of terms that refers exclusively to immediate experience. "Two Dogmas" is divided into six sections. The first four sections are focused on analyticity, the last two sections on reductionism
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New Foundations
In mathematical logic, New Foundations
New Foundations
(NF) is an axiomatic set theory, conceived by Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
as a simplification of the theory of types of Principia Mathematica. Quine first proposed NF in a 1937 article titled " New Foundations
New Foundations
for Mathematical Logic"; hence the name. Much of this entry discusses NFU, an important variant of NF due to Jensen (1969) and exposited in Holmes (1998).[1] In 1940 and 1951 Quine introduced an extension of NF sometimes called "Mathematical Logic" or "ML", that included classes as well as sets. New Foundations
New Foundations
has a universal set, so it is a non-well founded set theory.[2] That is to say, it is a logical theory that allows infinite descending chains of membership such as … xn ∈ xn-1 ∈ …x3 ∈ x2 ∈ x1
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Abstract Objects
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta (sing. abstractum) and concrete objects are sometimes called concreta (sing. concretum)
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Indeterminacy Of Translation
The indeterminacy of translation is a thesis propounded by 20th-century American analytic philosopher W. V. Quine. The classic statement of this thesis can be found in his 1960 book Word and Object, which gathered together and refined much of Quine's previous work on subjects other than formal logic and set theory.[1] The indeterminacy of translation is also discussed at length in his Ontological Relativity.[2] Crispin Wright suggests that this "has been among the most widely discussed and controversial theses in modern analytical philosophy".[3] This view is endorsed by Putnam who states that it is "the most fascinating and the most discussed philosophical argument since Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories".[4] Three aspects of indeterminacy arise, of which two relate to indeterminacy of translation.[5] The three indeterminacies are (i) inscrutability of reference, and (ii) holophrastic indeterminacy, and (iii) the underdetermination of scientific theory
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Naturalized Epistemology
Naturalized epistemology, coined by W. V. O. Quine, is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods. This shared emphasis on scientific methods of studying knowledge shifts focus to the empirical processes of knowledge acquisition and away from many traditional philosophical questions. There are noteworthy distinctions within naturalized epistemology. Replacement naturalism maintains that traditional epistemology should be abandoned and replaced with the methodologies of the natural sciences. The general thesis of cooperative naturalism is that traditional epistemology can benefit in its inquiry by using the knowledge we have gained from the cognitive sciences. Substantive naturalism focuses on an asserted equality of facts of knowledge and natural facts. Objections to naturalized epistemology have targeted features of the general project as well as characteristics of specific versions
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Ontological Relativity
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory). It is attributed to Willard van Orman Quine
Willard van Orman Quine
who motivated his holism through extending Pierre Duhem's problem of underdetermination in physical theory to all knowledge claims.[1][2] Duhem's idea was, roughly, that no theory of any type can be tested in isolation but only when embedded in a background of other hypotheses, e.g. hypotheses about initial conditions. Quine thought that this background involved not only such hypotheses but also our whole web-of-belief, which, among other things, includes our mathematical and logical theories and our scientific theories
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Quine's Paradox
Quine's paradox
Quine's paradox
is a paradox concerning truth values, attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. It is related to the liar paradox as a problem, and it purports to show that a sentence can be paradoxical even if it is not self-referring and does not use demonstratives or indexicals (i.e. it does not explicitly refer to itself)
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Duhem–Quine Thesis
The Duhem–Quine thesis, also called the Duhem–Quine problem, after Pierre Duhem
Pierre Duhem
and Willard Van Orman Quine, is that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions (also called auxiliary assumptions or auxiliary hypotheses)
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Radical Translation
Radical translation is a thought experiment in Word and Object, a major philosophical work from American philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine. It is used as an introduction to his theory of the indeterminacy of translation, and specifically to prove the point of inscrutability of reference. Using this concept of radical translation, Quine paints a setting where a linguist discovers a native linguistic community whose linguistic system is completely unrelated to any language familiar to the linguist
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Inscrutability Of Reference
The inscrutability or indeterminacy of reference (also referential inscrutability) is a thesis propounded by 20th century analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
in his book Word and Object.[1] The main claim of this theory is that any given sentence can be changed into a variety of other sentences where the parts of the sentence will change in what they reference[how?], but they will nonetheless maintain the meaning of the sentence as a whole.[2] The referential relation is inscrutable[clarification needed], because it is
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Confirmation Holism
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory). It is attributed to Willard van Orman Quine
Willard van Orman Quine
who motivated his holism through extending Pierre Duhem's problem of underdetermination in physical theory to all knowledge claims.[1][2] Duhem's idea was, roughly, that no theory of any type can be tested in isolation but only when embedded in a background of other hypotheses, e.g. hypotheses about initial conditions. Quine thought that this background involved not only such hypotheses but also our whole web-of-belief, which, among other things, includes our mathematical and logical theories and our scientific theories
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Cognitive Synonymy
Cognitive synonymy is a type of synonymy in which synonyms are so similar in meaning that they cannot be differentiated either denotatively or connotatively, that is, not even by mental associations, connotations, emotive responses, and poetic value. It is a stricter (more precise) technical definition of synonymy, specifically for theoretical (e.g., linguistic and philosophical) purposes. In usage employing this definition, synonyms with greater differences are often called near-synonyms rather than synonyms.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingOverview[edit] If a word is cognitively synonymous with another word, they refer to the same thing independently of context
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Philosophy Of Science
Philosophy
Philosophy
of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. There is no consensus among philosophers about many of the central problems concerned with the philosophy of science, including whether science can reveal the truth about unobservable things and whether scientific reasoning can be justified at all. In addition to these general questions about science as a whole, philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences (such as biology or physics)
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Quine–McCluskey Algorithm
The Quine–McCluskey algorithm (or the method of prime implicants) is a method used for minimization of Boolean functions that was developed by Willard V. Quine and extended by Edward J. McCluskey.[1][2][3] It is functionally identical to Karnaugh mapping, but the tabular form makes it more efficient for use in computer algorithms, and it also gives a deterministic way to check that the minimal form of a Boolean function has been reached
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