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Vulnerable Species
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened
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Reproduction
Reproduction
Reproduction
(or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction
Reproduction
is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual. In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists
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Captivity (animal)
Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.[1] The term is usually applied to wild animals that are held in confinement, but may also be used generally to describe the keeping of domesticated animals such as livestock or pets. This may include, for example, animals in farms, private homes, zoos and laboratories. Animal
Animal
captivity may be categorized according to the particular motives, objectives and conditions of the confinement.Contents1 History 2 Behavior of animals in captivity 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Throughout history not only domestic animals as pets and livestock were kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals. Some were failed domestication attempts. Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Lists Of Organisms By Population
This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population. While of the most numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields. Species
Species
population is a science falling under the purview of population ecology and biogeography
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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International Union For The Conservation Of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Taxon
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking, especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion
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Introduced Species
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species. The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example
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IUCN Red List Conservation Dependent Species
As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 238 conservation dependent species.[1] 0.29% of all evaluated species are listed as conservation dependent. The IUCN also lists seven subspecies and five varieties as conservation dependent. Of the animal subpopulations evaluated by the IUCN, one species subpopulation and one subspecies subpopulation has been assessed as conservation dependent. The conservation dependent category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "conservation dependent" category. This is a complete list of conservation dependent species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN
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Hybrid (biology)
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction. Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance), but can show hybrid vigour, often growing larger or taller than either parent. The concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics, attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes. In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are. Species
Species
are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo. Some act before fertilization and others after it
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Pollutants
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term
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Parasites
In biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.[1] The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".[2] Parasites include protozoa such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, and mosquitoes; plants such as mistletoe and dodder; and fungi such as honey fungus and ringworm
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IUCN Red List Of Extinct Species
On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
identified 842 (746 animals, 96 plants) extinct species, subspecies and varieties, stocks and sub-populations.Contents1 Kingdom Animalia1.1 Phylum Arthropoda1.1.1 Class Arachnida1.1.1.1 Order Holothyroidae 1.1.1.2 Order Opiliones1.1.2 Subphylum Crustacea1.1.2.1 Order Amphipoda 1.1.2.2 Order Calanoida 1.1.2.3 Order Cyclopoida 1.1.2.4 Order Decapoda 1.1.2.5 Order Podocopida1.1.3 Class Diplopoda1.1.3.1 Order Spirobolida1.1.4 Class Insecta1.1.4.1 Order C
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Kea
The kea (/ˈkiːə/; Māori: [kɛ.a]; Nestor notabilis) is a large species of parrot in the family Nestoridae[2] found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand. About 48 cm (19 in) long, it is mostly olive-green with a brilliant orange under its wings and has a large, narrow, curved, grey-brown upper beak. The kea is the world's only alpine parrot. Its omnivorous diet includes carrion,[3] but consists mainly of roots, leaves, berries, nectar, and insects. Now uncommon, the kea was once killed for bounty due to concerns by the sheep-farming community that it attacked livestock, especially sheep.[4] In 1986, it received full protection under the Wildlife Act.[5] The kea nests in burrows or crevices among the roots of trees. Kea
Kea
are known for their intelligence and curiosity, both vital to their survival in a harsh mountain environment
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