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Vulnerable Species
A VULNERABLE species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened. Some species listed as "vulnerable" may be common in captivity , an example being the military macaw . There are currently 5196 animals and 6789 plants classified as vulnerable, compared with 1998 levels of 2815 and 3222, respectively. Practices such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources have been enforced in efforts to conserve vulnerable breeds of livestock specifically
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Captivity (animal)
Animals that live under human care are in CAPTIVITY. Captivity can be used as a generalizing term to describe the keeping of either domesticated animals (livestock and pets ) or wild animals. This may include, for example, farms , private homes, zoos and laboratories. Keeping animals in human captivity and under human care can thus be distinguished between three primary categories according to the particular motives, objectives and conditions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Behavior of animals in captivity * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThroughout history not only domestic animals as pets and livestock were kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals. Some were failed domestication attempts. Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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International Union For The Conservation Of Nature
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Lists Of Organisms By Population
This is a collection of LISTS OF ORGANISMS BY THEIR POPULATION. While of the most numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields. Species
Species
population is a science falling under the purview of Population ecology and biogeography . Individuals are counted by census, as carried out for the piping plover ; using the transect method , as done for the mountain plover ; and beginning in 2012 by satellite, with the emperor penguin being the first subject counted in this manner
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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List Of Vulnerable Arthropods
As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1080 vulnerable arthropod species. 11% of all evaluated arthropod species are listed as vulnerable. The IUCN also lists 29 arthropod subspecies as vulnerable. No subpopulations of arthropods have been evaluated by the IUCN. For a species to be assessed as vulnerable to extinction the best available evidence must meet quantitative criteria set by the IUCN designed to reflect "a high risk of extinction in the wild". Endangered and critically endangered species also meet the quantitative criteria of vulnerable species, and are listed separately. See: List of endangered arthropods , List of critically endangered arthropods . Vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered species are collectively referred to as threatened species by the IUCN
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IUCN
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Parasites
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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Pollutants
A POLLUTANT is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term. However, the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from degradation of DDT
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Introduced Species
An INTRODUCED SPECIES (ALIEN SPECIES, EXOTIC SPECIES, NON-INDIGENOUS SPECIES, or NON-NATIVE SPECIES) is a species living outside its native distributional range , which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species
Introduced species
that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species . The impact of introduced species is highly variable. Some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem, while other introduced species may have no negative effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests. They are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown
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Hybrid (biology)
In biology , a HYBRID, or crossbreed , is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction . Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance ), but can show hybrid vigour , often growing larger or taller than either parent. The concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics , attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes . In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are. Species
Species
are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo. Some act before fertilization and others after it
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Iucn Red List Conservation Dependent Species
As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 238 conservation dependent species. 0.29% of all evaluated species are listed as conservation dependent. The IUCN also lists seven subspecies and five varieties as conservation dependent. Of the animal subpopulations evaluated by the IUCN, one species subpopulation and one subspecies subpopulation has been assessed as conservation dependent
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