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Vomiting
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking ‘’’,barfing’’’, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.[1] Vomiting
Vomiting
can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting
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Gums
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth. Gum health and disease can have an effect on general health.[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Marginal gums 1.2 Attached gum 1.3 Interdental gum2 Characteristics of healthy gums2.1 Color 2.2 Contour 2.3 Texture 2.4 Reaction to disturbance3 Clinical significance 4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The gums are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Unlike the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gums are tightly bound to the underlying bone which helps resist the friction of food passing over them. Thus when healthy, it presents an effective barrier to the barrage of periodontal insults to deeper tissue
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Tooth Enamel
Tooth
Tooth
enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown. The other major tissues are dentin, cementum, and dental pulp
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Aspiration Pneumonia
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.[1] Signs and symptoms often include fever and cough of relatively rapid onset.[1] Complications may include lung abscess.[1] Some include chemical pneumonitis as a subtype, which occurs from acidic but non-infectious stomach contents entering the lungs.[1][2] Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria.[2] Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness, problems with swallowing, alcoholism, tube feeding, and poor oral health.[1] Diagnosis is typically based on the presenting history, symptoms, chest X-ray, and sputum culture.[1][2] Differentiating from other types of pneumonia may be difficult.[1] Treatment is typically with antibiotics such as clindamycin, meropenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, or mox
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Asphyxiation
Asphyxia
Asphyxia
or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing. An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia
Asphyxia
causes generalized hypoxia, which affects primarily the tissues and organs. There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time
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Anesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness
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Respiratory Tract
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration. Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity, a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx, a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx. The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis, that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the airway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary (main) bronchi
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Emesis (genus)
41,[1] see textSynonymsAphacitis Hübner, [1819] Polystichtis Hübner, [1819] Tapina Billberg, 1820 Nimula Blanchard, 1840 Polystichthis Agassiz, 1846 Nelone Boisduval, 1870Emesis is a Neotropical genus of butterflies. Species include:[2][3]Emesis adelpha Le Cerf, 1958 Emesis aerigera (Stichel, 1910) Emesis angularis Hewitson, 1870 Emesis ares (Edwards, 1882) Emesis arnacis Stichel, 1928 Emesis aurimna (Boisduval, 1870) Emesis brimo Godman & Salvin, 1889 Emesis castigata Stichel, 1910 Emesis cerea (Linnaeus, 1767) Emesis condigna Stichel, 1925 Emesis cypria C. & R
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Intravenous
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
(IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips
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Kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. They are located at the back of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneal space. In adults they are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult kidney contains around one million nephrons. The nephron utilizes four processes to alter the blood plasma which flows to it: filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
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Cachexia
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. Cachexia is seen in people with cancer, AIDS,[1] coeliac disease,[2] chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, mercury poisoning (acrodynia), Crohn's disease, untreated/severe type 1 diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and hormonal deficiency.[medical citation needed] It is a positive risk factor for death, meaning if the person has cachexia, the chance of death from the underlying condition is increased dramatically
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Bicarbonate
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate[2]) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid
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Sequela
A sequela (UK: /sɪˈkwiːlə/,[1] US: /sɪˈkwɛlə/;[2][3] usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma. Typically, a sequela is a chronic condition that is a complication which follows a more acute condition. It is different from, but is a consequence of, the first condition. Timewise, a sequela contrasts with a late effect, where there is a period, sometimes as long as several decades, between the resolution of the initial condition and the appearance of the late effect. In general, non-medical usage, the terms sequela and sequelae mean consequence and consequences.[4] Examples and uses[edit] Chronic kidney disease, for example, is sometimes a sequela of diabetes, "chronic constipation" or more accurately "obstipation" (that is, difficulty in passing stool) is a sequela to an intestinal obstruction, and neck pain is a common sequela of whiplash or other trauma to the cervical vertebrae
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Poison
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.[1][2] The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production, procurement and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection
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Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
(ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds (usually greater than 1% of the speed of light), and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays, X-rays, and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing, whereas the lower ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum and all the spectrum below UV, including visible light (including nearly all types of laser light), infrared, microwaves, and radio waves are considered non-ionizing radiation. The boundary between ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation that occurs in the ultraviolet is not sharply defined, since different molecules and atoms ionize at different energies
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