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Vomiting
VOMITING, also known as EMESIS and THROWING UP, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose . Vomiting
Vomiting
can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning , or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation . The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea , which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required. Vomiting
Vomiting
is different from regurgitation , although the two terms are often used interchangeably
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Cachexia
CACHEXIA or WASTING SYNDROME is loss of weight , muscle atrophy , fatigue, weakness, and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. The formal definition of cachexia is decrease of body mass, less fatty tissue. It can be reversed nutritionally by doing regular exercise and a healthy nutrition diet. Doing regular exercise can treat the symptoms of cachexia indicating a primary pathology is in place. Cachexia is seen in people with cancer , AIDS
AIDS
, coeliac disease , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , multiple sclerosis , Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
, congestive heart failure , tuberculosis , familial amyloid polyneuropathy , mercury poisoning (acrodynia), Crohn\'s disease , untreated/severe Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, anorexia nervosa, and hormonal deficiency
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Kidney
The KIDNEYS are two bean -shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates . They filter the blood in order to make urine , to release and retain water, and to remove waste and nitrogen (the excretory system ). They also control the ion concentrations and acid-base balance of the blood. Each kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the ureter . In humans, they are roughly 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis . They also move waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium . Kidneys also regulate fluid balance and blood pressure . They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water , glucose , and amino acids . The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol and erythropoietin
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Ionizing Radiation
IONISING RADIATION (IONIZING RADIATION) is radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules , thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation
is made up of energetic subatomic particles , ions or atoms moving at high speeds (usually greater than 1% of the speed of light), and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum . Gamma rays , X-rays , and the higher ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum are ionizing, whereas the lower ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and also the lower part of the spectrum below UV, including visible light (including nearly all types of laser light), infrared , microwaves , and radio waves are all considered non-ionizing radiation
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Tooth Enamel
TOOTH ENAMEL is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown . The other major tissues are dentin , cementum , and dental pulp . It is a very hard, white to off-white, highly mineralised substance that acts as a barrier to protect the tooth but can become susceptible to degradation, especially by acids from food and drink
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Poison
In biology , POISONS are substances that cause disturbances in organisms , usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity. The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin , and from a venom . Poisons are toxins produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors use poisons for reasons other than their toxicity . Pesticides are one group of substances whose toxicity to various insects and other animals deemed to be pests (e.g., rats and cockroaches ) is their prime purpose. In 2013, 3.3 million cases of unintentional poisonings occurred. This resulted in 98,000 deaths worldwide, down from 120,000 deaths in 1990
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Digestive Enzymes
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body. Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tracts of animals (including humans) and in the traps of carnivorous plants , where they aid in the digestion of food , as well as inside cells , especially in their lysosomes , where they function to maintain cellular survival. Digestive enzymes of diverse specificities and are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands , in the secretions of cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the secretions of cells lining the small and large intestines
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Intravenous
INTRAVENOUS THERAPY is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein . Intravenous (IV) means "within vein". Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as DRIPS. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Intravenous therapy may be used for fluid administration (such as correcting dehydration ), to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications and for blood transfusions
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Respiratory Tract
In humans, the RESPIRATORY TRACT is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration . Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity , a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx , a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx . The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis , that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the passageway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary (main) bronchi
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Aspiration Pneumonia
ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs. Symptoms often include fever and cough of relatively rapid onset. Complications may include lung abscess . Some include chemical pneumonitis as a subtype, which occurs from acidic but non-infectious stomach contents entering the lungs, while other do not. Infection can be due to a variety of bacteria . Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness , problems with swallowing , alcoholism , tube feeding , and poor oral health . Diagnosis is typically based on the presenting history, symptoms, chest X-ray , and sputum culture . Differentiating from other types of pneumonia may be difficult. Treatment is typically with antibiotics such as clindamycin , meropenem , ampicillin/sulbactam , or moxifloxacin . For those with only chemical pneumonitis antibiotics are not typically required
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Chloride
Bromide Iodide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 kPa). Infobox references The CHLORIDE ION /ˈklɔəraɪd/ is the anion (negatively charged ion) CL−. It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen ) gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride
Chloride
salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded
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Asphyxiation
ASPHYXIA or ASPHYXIATION is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing . An example of asphyxia is choking . Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia , which affects primarily the tissues and organs. There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time. Asphyxia can cause coma or death. In 2015 about 9.8 million cases of unintentional suffocation occurred which resulted in 35,600 deaths. The word asphyxia is from Ancient Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart)
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Anesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry ), ANESTHESIA or ANAESTHESIA is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain ), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness . A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being ANESTHETIZED. Anesthesia
Anesthesia
enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient
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PH
In chemistry , PH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/ ) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution . It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration , measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions . More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic . Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy , medicine , biology , chemistry , agriculture , forestry , food science , environmental science , oceanography , civil engineering , chemical engineering , nutrition , water treatment and water purification , as well as many other applications
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Bicarbonate
In inorganic chemistry , BICARBONATE (IUPAC -recommended nomenclature: HYDROGENCARBONATE ) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid . It is a polyatomic anion with the chemical formula H C O − 3. Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate
serves a crucial biochemical role in the physiological pH buffering system. The term "bicarbonate" was coined in 1814 by the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
. The prefix "bi" in "bicarbonate" comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO2− 3) per sodium ion in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and other bicarbonates than in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and other carbonates. The name lives on as a trivial name
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Gums
The GUMS or GINGIVA (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth . Gum health and disease can have an effect on general health. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Marginal gums * 1.2 Attached gum * 1.3 Interdental gum * 2 Characteristics of healthy gums * 2.1 Color * 2.2 Contour * 2.3 Texture * 2.4 Reaction to disturbance * 3 Clinical significance * 4 See also * 5 References STRUCTUREThe gums are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Unlike the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gums are tightly bound to the underlying bone which helps resist the friction of food passing over them. Thus when healthy, it presents an effective barrier to the barrage of periodontal insults to deeper tissue. Healthy gums are usually coral pink in light skinned people, but may be naturally darker with melanin pigmentation
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