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Volvo XC60
The Volvo XC60
Volvo XC60
is a compact luxury crossover SUV manufactured and marketed by Swedish automaker Volvo Cars
Volvo Cars
since 2008. It is now in its second generation. The XC60 is part of Volvo's 60 Series of automobiles, along with the S60, S60 Cross Country, V60, and V60 Cross Country. The first generation model introduced a new style for the 60 Series models. Along with the rest of the lineup, the first-generation XC60 was refreshed in 2013
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Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain
Hybrid vehicle
Hybrid vehicle
drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle has multiple forms of motive power. Hybrids come in many configurations. For example, a hybrid may receive its energy by burning petroleum, but switch between an electric motor and a combustion engine. Electrical vehicles have a long history combining internal combustion and electrical transmission –as in a diesel-electric powertrain–, although they have mostly been used for rail locomotives. A diesel-electric powertrain fails the definition of hybrid because the electrical drive transmission directly replaces the mechanical transmission rather than being a supplementary source of motive power. One of the earliest forms of hybrid land vehicle is the 'trackless' trolleybus of the 1930s, which normally used traction current delivered by wire
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Concept Car
A concept car (also known as concept vehicle, show vehicle or prototype) is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology. They are often shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not be mass-produced. General Motors designer Harley Earl
Harley Earl
is generally credited with inventing the concept car, and did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama
Motorama
shows of the 1950s. Concept cars never go into production directly. In modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, safety, regulatory compliance, and cost
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Straight-six Engine
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine (often abbreviated I6 or L6) is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft (straight engine). The bank of cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the vertical, the engine is sometimes called a slant-six
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Transmission (mechanics)
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.[1][2] In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In American English, however, the term refers more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs.[note 1] The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process
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Manual Transmission
Animation: shifting mechanism of a gearbox with 4 gearsA manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, or colloquially in some countries (e.g. the United States) as a stick shift is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal (automobile) or hand lever (motorcycle), for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission; and a gear selector operated by hand (automobile) or by foot (motorcycle). A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is often the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are usually equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; other options include automatic transmissions such as a traditional automatic (hydraulic planetary) transmission (often a manumatic), a semi-automatic transmission, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT)
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Automatic Transmission
An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speed automatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel. The number of forward gear ratios is often expressed for manual transmissions as well (e.g., 6-speed manual). The most popular form found in automobiles is the hydraulic automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch, and accomplishes gear changes by hydraulically locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears
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Wheelbase
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles (e.g. some trucks), the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the steering (front) axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. Wheelbase
Wheelbase
(measured between rotational centers of wheels)Contents1 Vehicles1.1 Varying wheelbases within nameplate 1.2 Bikes 1.3 Skateboards2 Rail 3 See also 4 ReferencesVehicles[edit] The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero
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Curb Weight
Curb weight (American English) or kerb weight (British English) is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil, transmission oil, coolant, air conditioning refrigerant, and sometimes a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo. This definition may differ from definitions used by governmental regulatory agencies or other organizations
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Ford Motor Company
Coordinates: 42°18′53″N 83°12′38″W / 42.31472°N 83.21056°W / 42.31472; -83.21056Ford Motor CompanyGo FurtherThe Ford World Headquarters
Ford World Headquarters
in Dearborn, Michigan, also known as the Glass HouseTypePublicTraded asNYSE: F S&P 100 Component S&P 500 ComponentIndustry AutomotiveFounded June 16, 1903; 114 years ago (1903-06-16)Founder Henry FordHeadquarters Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.Area servedWorldwideKey peopleWilliam C
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Plug-in Hybrid
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator. Most PHEVs are passenger cars, but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans, utility trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles, scooters, and military vehicles. Similarly to all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids displace emissions from the car tailpipe to the generators powering the grid. These sources may be renewable or may have lower emission than an internal combustion engine. Charging the battery from the grid can be lower cost than using the on-board engine, helping to reduce operating cost. Mass-produced plug-in hybrids were available to the public in China and the United States
United States
in 2010.[3][4][5] By the end of 2016, there were over 30 models of series-production highway legal plug-in hybrids for retail sales
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All-electric Range
All-electric range (AER) is the driving range of a vehicle using only power from its electric battery pack to traverse a given driving cycle. In the case of a battery electric vehicle, it means the total range per charge. For a plug-in hybrid (PHEV), it means the range of the vehicle in charge-depleting mode. PHEVs can travel considerably further in charge-sustaining mode which uses both on-board fuel and the battery pack. Calculating AER is made more complicated because of variations in PHEV design. A vehicle like the Fisker Karma
Fisker Karma
that uses a serial hybrid design has a clear AER. Similarly a vehicle like the Chevrolet Volt which disengages the internal combustion engine (ICE) from the drive train while in electric mode has a clear AER, however blended mode PHEVs which use the ICE and electric motor in conjunction do not have a clear AER because they use gasoline and grid provided electricity at the same time
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Straight-four Engine
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars.[1] However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines
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Miles Per Gallon Equivalent
Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent
Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent
(MPGe or MPGge) is a measure of the average distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. MPGe is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) to compare energy consumption of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles with the energy consumption[1] of conventional internal combustion vehicles rated in miles per US gallon.[2][3] MPGe does not necessarily represent an equivalency in the operating costs between alternative fuel vehicles and the MPG rating of internal combustion engine vehicles due to the wide variation in costs for the fuel sources regionally[4][5] since the EPA
EPA
assumes prices that represents the national averages[6]
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City Safety
City Safety is an auto brake technology that assists in reducing or avoiding traffic accidents at speeds up to 30 km/h (19 mph) in vehicles using City Safety Generation I. Later models using City Safety Generation II can stop at 50 km/h (31 mph). All cars sold by Volvo Cars with a Model Year of 2014 or later is equipped with City Safety Generation II, with an exception of the XC90 (2002-2014). City Safety is made by Volvo Cars.[1] [2][3] The Volvo V40 was the first car to make use of City Safety Generation II when it was released 2012, and since then other cars in the line up has gotten the same system. [4][5] It uses lidar laser sensor that monitors an area approximately 6 m (20 ft) directly in front of the vehicle. The feature is programmed to respond if the car in front is either at a standstill or is moving more slowly in the same direction as the car itself
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