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Volkswagen Golf
The VOLKSWAGEN GOLF ( listen (help ·info )) is a small family car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen
Volkswagen
since 1974, marketed worldwide across seven generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – such as the VOLKSWAGEN RABBIT in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the VOLKSWAGEN CARIBE in Mexico
Mexico
(Mk1). The original Golf Mk1 was a front-wheel drive , front-engined replacement for the air-cooled , rear-engined, rear-wheel drive Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Beetle . Historically, the Golf is Volkswagen's best-selling model and the world\'s second best-selling model , with more than 29 million built by 2012. Initially, most Golf production was in the 3-door hatchback style
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Algeria
Coordinates : 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2 People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية ( Arabic
Arabic
) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber ) République démocratique populaire d'Algérie (French ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people ANTHEM: Kassaman (English: "We Pledge")
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Relizane
RELIZANE or GHILIZAN (Arabic : غلیزان; Berber : ƔILIZAN; French: Relizane) is a city in Algeria
Algeria
. It is also the capital city of Relizane Province in Algeria. REFERENCES * ^ "Wilaya de Relizane
Relizane
: répartition de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs, selon la commune de résidence et la dispersion" (PDF).
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Notchback
NOTCHBACK is a styling term describing a car body style , a variation of three-box styling where the third distinct volume or "box" is less pronounced — especially where the rear deck (third box) is short or where the rear window is upright. Generally, the notchback refers to the distinct angle of the rear window in relation to the vehicle's more horizontal roofline and its rear decklid . The term is derived from the noun, NOTCH meaning v-cut or indentation — though as a styling term it eludes precise definition and can overlap other styling designations. The term can apply to a sedan , coupé , liftback or hatchback configuration — especially where the third box of the THREE-BOX styling remains articulated, though perhaps barely — as with the third generation European Ford Escort . The notchback may highlight a design's sharp or abrupt roof/rear-window angle. Examples of reverse-rake rear window include the European Ford Anglia and U.S
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Turbocharged Direct Injection
TURBOCHARGED DIRECT INJECTION or TDI is a design of turbodiesel engines featuring turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection that was developed and produced by the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
(VW AG). These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles made by the company (particularly those sold in Europe
Europe
). They are also used as marine engines in Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Marine and Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Industrial Motor applications. Some TDI engines installed in 2009 to 2015 model year Volkswagen Group cars sold through 18 September 2015 had an emissions defeat device , which activated emissions controls only during emissions testing. The emissions controls were suppressed otherwise, allowing the TDI engines to exceed legal limits on emissions
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Nameplate
A NAMEPLATE identifies and displays a person or product's name. Nameplates are usually shaped as rectangles but are also seen in other shapes, sometimes taking on the shape of someone’s name. The primary use of nameplates is for informative (as in an office environment, where nameplates are mounted on doors or walls in order to identify employees) and commercial purposes (as in a retail environment, where nameplates are mounted on products to identify the brand). Whereas name tags tend to be worn on uniforms or clothing, nameplates tend to be mounted onto an object (e.g. cars, amplification devices) or physical space (e.g. doors, walls, or desktops). Nameplates are also distinct from name plaques . Plaques are items of larger dimensions that are designed to communicate more information than a name and title
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Air-cooled
AIR-COOLED ENGINES rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them. A cylinder from an air-cooled aviation engine, a Continental C85 . Notice the rows of fins on both the steel cylinder barrel and the aluminum cylinder head. The fins provide additional surface area for air to pass over the cylinder and absorb heat. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Applications * 2.1 Road vehicles * 2.2 Aviation * 2.3 Diesel engines * 2.4 Stationary or portable engines * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 4.1 Cited sources * 4.2 Further reading INTRODUCTIONMost modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air (or raw water , in the case of marine engines )
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Brasil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * Hino Nacional Brasileiro * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * Hino à Bandeira Nacional * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * Selo Nacional do Brasil * National Seal of Brazil * CAPITAL
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Diesel Engine
The DIESEL ENGINE (also known as a COMPRESSION-IGNITION or CI ENGINE) is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the high temperature which a gas achieves (i.e. the air) when greatly compressed (adiabatic compression ). Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol ), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers) may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, or both
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" ANTHEM: " Deutschlandlied
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São José Dos Pinhais
SãO JOSé DOS PINHAIS (Portuguese pronunciation: ) is a city in Paraná , Brazil. It is a part of the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Location * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe creation of the municipality of São José dos Pinhais
São José dos Pinhais
was made through the law No. 10 of the then province of São Paulo, on July 16, 1852. This law specified that the headquarters of the city would be called Villa of São José dos Pinhais, but the political establishment, with the installation of the City Council, occurred on January 8, 1853. On December 27, 1897, the village was finally elevated to city status. In 1958, Nereu Ramos ( President of Brazil
President of Brazil
) died in a plane crash in the Colony Murici, close to São José dos Pinhais
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Puebla
PUEBLA (Spanish pronunciation: ( listen )), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF PUEBLA (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District , comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital city is Puebla
Puebla
. It is located in East-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz
Veracruz
to the north and east, Hidalgo , México , Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
and Morelos
Morelos
to the west, and Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south. The origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, which was founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico
Mexico
City and the port of Veracruz
Veracruz

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Mexico
Coordinates : 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102 United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Himno Nacional Mexicano
Himno Nacional Mexicano
" (English: "Mexican National Anthem") Capital and largest city Mexico City
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * None at federal level * Spanish (de facto) RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES* Spanish 68 native language groups
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Station Wagon
A STATION WAGON, also called an ESTATE CAR, ESTATE WAGON, or simply WAGON or ESTATE, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate ), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar , as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume
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Convertible (car)
A CONVERTIBLE or CABRIOLET (/ˌkæbriːoʊˈleɪ/ ; KA-bree-oh-LAY ) is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the earlier phaeton , an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of an articulated frame covered with a folding, textile-based fabric similar to that on an open carriage evolved into the most common form. A lesser seen DETACHABLE HARDTOP provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative. As technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible also known as a cabrio coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors and side glass
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Convertible
A CONVERTIBLE or CABRIOLET (/ˌkæbriːoʊˈleɪ/ ; KA-bree-oh-LAY ) is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the earlier phaeton , an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of an articulated frame covered with a folding, textile-based fabric similar to that on an open carriage evolved into the most common form. A lesser seen DETACHABLE HARDTOP provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative. As technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible also known as a cabrio coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors and side glass
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