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Volcanoes
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Divergent Boundary
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. Divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts which eventually become rift valleys. Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges. Divergent boundaries also form volcanic islands which occur when the plates move apart to produce gaps which molten lava rises to fill. Current research indicates that complex convection within the Earth's mantle allows material to rise to the base of the lithosphere beneath each divergent plate boundary.[1] This supplies the area with vast amounts of heat and a reduction in pressure that melts rock from the asthenosphere (or upper mantle) beneath the rift area forming large flood basalt or lava flows
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Jet Engine
A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines (turbojets, turbofans, ramjets, and pulse jets) and non-airbreathing jet engines (such as rocket engines). In general, jet engines are combustion engines. In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine. These typically feature a rotating air compressor powered by a turbine, with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle — this process is known as the Brayton thermodynamic cycle. Jet aircraft
Jet aircraft
use such engines for long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines
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Diapir
A diapir (/ˈdaɪ.əpɪər/;[1] French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks. Depending on the tectonic environment, diapirs can range from idealized mushroom-shaped Rayleigh–Taylor-instability-type structures in regions with low tectonic stress such as in the Gulf of Mexico to narrow dikes of material that move along tectonically induced fractures in surrounding rock. The term was introduced by the Romanian geologist Ludovic Mrazek, who was the first to understand the principle of salt intrusion and plasticity
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Mantle Plume
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson
J. Tuzo Wilson
in 1963.[2] As the heads of mantle plumes can partly melt when they reach shallow depths, they are often invoked as the cause of volcanic hotspots, such as Hawaii or Iceland, and flood basalts such as the Deccan and Siberian traps. Some such volcanic regions lie far from tectonic plate boundaries, while others represent unusually large-volume volcanism near plate boundaries or in large igneous provinces. A mantle plume is posited to exist where hot rock nucleates at the core-mantle boundary and rises through the Earth's mantle becoming a diapir in the Earth's crust.[3] The currently active volcanic centers are known as hotspots
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Rio Grande Rift
The Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Rift
Rift
is a north-trending continental rift zone. It separates the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
in the west from the interior of the North American craton on the east.[1] The rift extends from central Colorado
Colorado
in the north to the state of Chihuahua, Mexico
Mexico
in the south.[2] The rift zone consists of four basins that have an average width of 50 kilometers.[1] The rift can be observed on location at Rio Grande National Forest, White Sands National Monument, Santa Fe National Forest, and Cibola National Forest, among other locations. The Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Rift
Rift
has been an important site for humans for a long time, because it provides a north-south route that follows a major river
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Operating Temperature
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the minimum operating temperature to the maximum operating temperature (or peak operating temperature). Outside this range of safe operating temperatures the device may fail. Aerospace and military-grade devices generally operate over a broader temperature range than industrial devices; commercial-grade[clarification needed] devices generally have the narrowest operating temperature range. It is one component of reliability engineering. Similarly, biological systems have a viable temperature range, which might be referred to as an "operating temperature".Contents1 Ranges 2 Aerospace and military 3 Commercial and retail 4 Biology 5 Notes 6 ReferencesRanges[edit] Most devices are manufactured in several temperature grades
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Turbine
A turbine (from the Latin
Latin
turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence")[1][2] is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator or producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines.[3] A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels. Gas, steam, and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid
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Mid-Atlantic Ridge
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
(MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world. In the North Atlantic it separates the Eurasian and North American Plates, and in the South Atlantic it separates the African and South American Plates. The ridge extends from a junction with the Gakkel Ridge
Gakkel Ridge
(Mid-Arctic Ridge) northeast of Greenland
Greenland
southward to the Bouvet Triple Junction
Bouvet Triple Junction
in the South Atlantic. Although the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
is mostly an underwater feature, portions of it have enough elevation to extend above sea level. The section of the ridge that includes the island of Iceland
Iceland
is also known as the Reykjanes Ridge
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Mid-oceanic Ridge
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.[1] It consists of various mountains linked in chains, typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine. This type of oceanic mountain ridge is characteristic of what is known as an 'oceanic spreading center', which is responsible for seafloor spreading.[2] The production of new seafloor results from mantle upwelling in response to plate spreading; this isentropic upwelling solid mantle material eventually exceeds the solidus and melts. The buoyant melt rises as magma at a linear weakness in the oceanic crust, and emerges as lava, creating new crust upon cooling
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Convergent Boundary
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle. This is in contrast to a constructive plate boundary (also known as a mid-ocean ridge or spreading center). As a result of pressure, friction, and plate material melting in the mantle, earthquakes and volcanoes are common near destructive boundaries, where subduction zones or an area of continental collision (depending on the nature of the plates involved) occurs. The subducting plate in a subduction zone is normally oceanic crust, and moves beneath the other plate, which can be made of either oceanic or continental crust. During collisions between two continental plates, large mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas
Himalayas
are formed
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Volcanic (other)
Volcanic is an adjective used for things and concepts related to volcanos. It may also refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Cinema and film industry 3 Comics 4 Firearms 5 Informatics 6 Botany 7 Geology 8 Places and geography 9 People 10 See alsoMusic[edit]Volcanic Action of My Soul, a 1971 studio album by Ray Charles. Volcanic Rock (album), the second album for Australian proto-heavy metal band Buffalo. Volcanic Sunlight, the fourth studio album by Saul Williams. Volcanic Tongue, a record label from Glasgow, Scotland.Cinema and film industry[edit]Volcanic Eruptions (film company) Volcanic Sprint, a 2007 documentary film.Comics[edit]Volcanic Eruption (manga), one of the stories included in the manga Suspicion.Firearms[edit]Volcanic Repeating Arms, a 19th-century firearms company.Informatics[edit]Volcanic Islands (GPU family), another name for the next Radeon HD 9000 Series of graphics processing units.Botan
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Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Magma Chamber
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth. The molten rock, or magma, in such a chamber is under great pressure, and, given enough time, that pressure can gradually fracture the rock around it, creating a way for the magma to move upward. If it finds its way to the surface, then the result will be a volcanic eruption; consequently, many volcanoes are situated over magma chambers. These chambers are hard to detect deep within the Earth, and therefore most of those known are close to the surface, commonly between 1 km and 10 km down. Dynamics of magma chambers[edit]Magma chambers above a subducting plateMagma rises through cracks from beneath and across the crust because it is less dense than the surrounding rock. When the magma cannot find a path upwards it pools into a magma chamber. These chambers are commonly built up over time,[1][2] by successive horizontal[3] or vertical[4] magma injections
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Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
(alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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